The Fugitive (L'Évadé) from Natural History (Histoire Naturelle)
1926. One from a portfolio of 34 collotypes after frottage, composition: 10 1/8 × 16 5/8" (25.7 × 42.3 cm); sheet: 12 11/16 × 19 5/8" (32.3 × 49.8 cm)
Max Ernst experimented with the technique of frottage, or rubbing, as a way to probe the subconscious mind. He created these images by placing paper atop various materials—wood floorboards, lengths of twine, wire mesh, crumpled paper, crusts of bread—then rubbing the surface with a pencil or crayon. Ernst elaborated upon the resulting textures, often transforming them into images of strange and fantastic landscapes, objects, or in this case, creatures. L’évadé (The Fugitive) is one in a series of drawings entitled Histoire Naturelle (Natural History), which emerged from uncontrolled procedures but convey the precision of scientific illustrations.
The method with which an artist, writer, performer, athlete, or other producer employs technical skills or materials to achieve a finished product or endeavor.
In popular writing about psychology, the division of the mind containing the sum of all thoughts, memories, impulses, desires, feelings, etc., that are not subject to a person’s perception or control but that often affect conscious thoughts and behavior (noun). The Surrealists derived much inspiration from psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud’s theories on dreams and the workings of the subconscious mind.
An element or substance out of which something can be made or composed.
The natural landforms of a region; also, an image that has natural scenery as its primary focus.
A technique that involves rubbing pencil, graphite, chalk, crayon, or another medium onto a sheet of paper that has been placed on top of a textured object or surface. The process causes the raised portions of the surface below to be translated to the sheet. The term is derived from the French frotter, which means “to rub.”
Ernst’s Discovery of Frottage
Ernst claims he discovered the frottage method while staring transfixed by the deep wooden grain of his floor boards. To “explore the hidden symbolism of this obsession, and to aid my meditative and hallucinatory powers,” Ernst dropped pieces of paper at random, then rubbed the surfaces with soft black lead. “The drawings thus obtained steadily lost the character…of the wood,” recalled Ernst, “ …and assumed the aspect of unbelievably clear images probably revealing the original causes of my obsession…”1