Founded in England in the 1860s in response to mass industrialization, this design and architecture movement was focused on changing workers’ relationship with machines and the objects they created. In addition to their deep appreciation for handmade labor, makers emphasized functional forms, simple and clear construction, and the use of local or natural materials. The resulting international network of arts and craft knowledge and techniques had widespread influence on the global Art nouveau movement, the Bauhaus school of art and design in Germany, and many others.

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