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About this work

Heather Hess, German Expressionist Digital Archive Project, German Expressionism: Works from the Collection. 2011.

Through these eleven illustrations of Johann Sebastian Bach's cantata no. 60, "O Eternity, Thou Word of Thunder," Oskar Kokoschka attempted to exorcise the pain from his tormented relationship with Alma Mahler, his lover for nearly two tumultuous years. Kokoschka remained infatuated with her, even after she rebuffed his marriage proposal and aborted his child. The pianist Leo Kestenberg, a friend of Kokoschka's, first played the cantata for him, but Kokoschka insisted it was the libretto, not Bach's music, that prompted him to make the prints.

Bach's cantata presents a dialogue between Fear and Hope. In these prints, Kokoschka casts himself in the role of Hope, while Mahler plays Fear. Guided by Fear, Hope sets down a road that leads to his death (although the cantata itself sounds a positive note of divine salvation). Throughout, Kokoschka cites earlier works and weaves in biographical allusions to his relationship with Mahler. The imagery in Drachen über einer Flamme (Dragons over a flame) recalls his attempts to protect the pregnant Mahler from seeing frightening reptiles, while the final print reprises imagery from the poster for his earlier play Mörderer, Hoffnung der Frauen (Murderer, hope of woman). In the penultimate print, Kokoschka depicts himself standing in a grave, an acknowledgement of guilt for the failed relationship. As he later stated, "I am in the grave, slain by own my jealousy."

In printmaking, Kokoschka preferred lithography for its directness and the rich range of tonal values that he could wrest from the lithographic crayon. He used the power of light and shadow to evoke emotion in these prints.

Oskar Kokoschka (Austrian, 1886–1980)

Fear and Hope (The Man Comforts the Woman) [Furcht und Hoffnung (Der Mann tröstet das Weib)] (plate 7) from O Eternity - Thou Word of Thunder (Bach Cantata) [O Ewigkeit - Du Donnerwort (Bachkantate)]

Date:
(1914, published 1916)
Medium:
One from a portfolio of eleven lithographs
Dimensions:
composition (irreg. ): 15 3/8 x 12 3/16" (39.1 x 31 cm); sheet: 26 7/16 x 20 3/16" (67.2 x 51.2 cm)
Paper:
Cream, smooth, wove (Van Gelder Zonen).
Publisher:
Fritz Gurlitt, Berlin
Printer:
unknown
Edition:
First portfolio edition: approx. 125 (including deluxe edition of approx. 25 on Van Gelder Zonen "Bütten" published 1916 [this ex.] and regular edition of approx. 100 on "Bütten" paper published 1917); Second portfolio edition, published 1918: edition size unknown; Illustrated book edition, published 1918: 125 (including deluxe edition of 25 numbered 1-25 and regular edition of 100 numbered 26-125)
Credit Line:
Purchase
Copyright:
© 2016 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / Pro Litteris, Zurich
Reference:
Arntz 40. Wingler & Welz 63.
MoMA Number:
235.1947.7
Themes:
Religion, Sex
Techniques:
Lithography

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