Abstract Expressionist painters explored new ways of creating art, reinvigorating and reinventing the medium. They changed the nature of painting with their large, abstract canvases, energetic and gestural lines, and new artistic processes. Many artists experimented with nontraditional materials, such as commercial paints and housepainter’s brushes. Artists also developed new techniques to apply paint, such as moving the canvas from the easel to the floor and working on unstretched and unprimed canvas. With these unconventional ways of painting, the Abstract Expressionists sought new forms of self-expression and personal freedom in their work.
Chaos and control
Jackson Pollock is perhaps the most well-known Abstract Expressionist, famous for his mural-sized action paintings. Placing the canvas on the floor, Pollock would drip, splatter, fling, and smear paint from all sides. But despite the seemingly spontaneous appearance of his paintings, Pollock, like other Abstract Expressionists, maintained a balance of chaos and control. For example, Franz Kline’s large black-and-white canvases seem impulsive and full of energy, but he often sketched the compositions out first. Pollock claimed that he maintained control when making his drip paintings.
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One who applies paint to canvas, wood, paper, or another support to produce a picture.
A rendering of the basic elements of a composition, often made in a loosely detailed or quick manner. Sketches can be both finished works of art or studies for another composition.
A representation of a person or thing in a work of art.
A setting for or a part of a story or narrative.
A work of art made from paint applied to canvas, wood, paper, or another support (noun).
A closely woven, sturdy cloth of hemp, cotton, linen, or a similar fiber, frequently stretched over a frame and used as a surface for painting.
The method with which an artist, writer, performer, athlete, or other producer employs technical skills or materials to achieve a finished product or endeavor.
The visual or narrative focus of a work of art.
A distinctive or characteristic manner of expression.
A large painting applied to a wall or ceiling, especially in a public space.
The materials used to create a work of art, and the categorization of art based on the materials used (for example, painting [or more specifically, watercolor], drawing, sculpture).
An element or substance out of which something can be made or composed.
A long mark or stroke.
A category of artistic practice having a particular form, content, or technique.
A facial aspect indicating an emotion; also, the means by which an artist communicates ideas and emotions.
The arrangement of the individual elements within a work of art so as to form a unified whole; also used to refer to a work of art, music, or literature, or its structure or organization.
Derived from the French verb coller, meaning “to glue,” collage refers to both the technique and the resulting work of art in which fragments of paper and other materials are arranged and glued or otherwise affixed to a supporting surface.
Non-representational works of art that do not depict scenes or objects in the world or have discernable subject matter.
The dominant artistic movement in the 1940s and 1950s, Abstract Expressionism was the first to place New York City at the forefront of international modern art. The associated artists developed greatly varying stylistic approaches, but shared a commitment to an abstract art that powerfully expresses personal convictions and profound human values. They championed bold, gestural abstraction in all mediums, particularly large painted canvases.
A term generally used to describe art that is not representational or based on external reality or nature.
Art critic Harold Rosenberg coined the term “action painting” in 1952 to describe the work of artists who painted using bold gestures that engaged more of the body than traditional easel painting. Often the viewer can see broad brushstrokes, drips, splashes, or other evidence of the physical action that took place upon the canvas.
Jackson Pollock On His Process
Jackson Pollock stated: “When I am in my painting, I’m not aware of what I’m doing. It is only after a sort of ‘get acquainted’ period that I see what I have been about. I have no fear of making changes, destroying the image, etc., because the painting has a life of its own. I try to let it come through. It is only when I lose contact with the painting that the result is a mess. Otherwise there is pure harmony, an easy give and take, and the painting comes out well.”1
Questions & Activities
Jackson Pollock, Helen Frankenthaler, Franz Kline, and Willem de Kooning are all known for their use of expressive lines. Look at their paintings and write a list of adjectives to describe the different lines you see. Draw lines that correspond with the words. Pair up with a partner and compare each person’s line dictionary. Do you agree on which words describe each line?
Make a Collage
Franz Kline and Jackson Pollock sometimes incorporated unusual elements into their paintings. Kline collaged telephone book pages to make Untitled II, and Pollock embedded nails, coins, buttons, and even cigarettes in Full Fathom Five. Create your own collage that features a person and reveals something about his or her emotion or state of mind. Start with images cut out of magazines and newspapers. Think about subject matter, style, and composition, and then come up with a title for your work.
Debate: Chaos vs. Control
Working with a partner, discuss the tension between chaos and control in Abstract Expressionism. Each person should choose a statement below and defend it in a debate. In developing your argument, consider artists’ materials and process.
Statement 1: Abstract Expressionism is governed by chaos and spontaneity.
Statement 2: Abstract Expressionism is about control and order.
From Figuration to Abstraction
Franz Kline turned to abstraction after making a drawing of a rocking chair. He projected the image onto a wall and was fascinated by how portions of the magnified image became abstract. In this activity, use a viewfinder and an image from a magazine to make your own abstract work.
A viewfinder on a camera is a device that allows a person to see what the lens will capture in a picture. When sketching, you can use a paper viewfinder to help you identify what area of a scene you want to draw.
Make a viewfinder by cutting a rectangle—1 inch by 1 ¼ inch—in the middle of an index card, or print the viewfinder template and cut along the dashed lines. You can download the viewfinder template from the pull-down menu at the top of this screen.
Find an image in a magazine or a newspaper. Use the viewfinder to identify an area of the image that has an interesting composition, considering elements such as line, shape, and color.
Draw the section of the image you have chosen on a piece of paper, making sure to enlarge the image. When you’re done, compare the original image to your abstract drawing.
de Kooning and the Representation of Women
Research. Visit the website for the National Museum of Women in the Arts and do some reading about how artists have depicted women throughout history. Then pick a work made by a woman from the NMWA’s collection and consider how this artist represents women in her work. Compare and contrast this artist’s approach to her subject with de Kooning’s Woman, I.
Reflect. Write a two-page essay explaining your findings.