Collection 1880s–1940s


French Landscapes and Interiors

New on view



Paul Cézanne. Pines and Rocks (Fontainebleau?). c. 1897. Oil on canvas, 32 × 25 3/4" (81.3 × 65.4 cm). The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Lillie P. Bliss Collection
  • MoMA, Floor 5, 501 The Alfred H. Barr, Jr. Galleries

The late 19th century in France was an era of rapid change: the emergence of mass media, new and faster forms of transportation, urban expansion of cities like Paris, and developments in industry. Vision itself was likewise transformed, whether by new kinds of illumination—such as electric light—or by the increasingly widespread availability of photographic and moving images. Seeing the world differently, artists working in France reacted to these changes; how one saw was as crucial as what was seen.

Using tools both old and new, from the paintbrush to the camera, artists like Paul Signac and Eugene Atget took up the challenge of representing this new era by looking closely and carefully at changes in the landscape, society, and visual experience. Others focused on the domestic or looked inward, representing the unconscious, dreams, and fantasy. Vincent van Gogh, for example, used thick paint to render scenes “as if seen in a dream, in character and yet at the same time stranger than the reality.”

Organized by Ann Temkin, The Marie-Josée and Henry Kravis Chief Curator of Painting and Sculpture, with Rachel Remick, Curatorial Assistant, Department of Painting and Sculpture.

44 works online


Installation images

How we identified these works

In 2018–19, MoMA collaborated with Google Arts & Culture Lab on a project using machine learning to identify artworks in installation photos. That project has concluded, and works are now being identified by MoMA staff.

If you notice an error, please contact us at [email protected].


If you would like to reproduce an image of a work of art in MoMA’s collection, or an image of a MoMA publication or archival material (including installation views, checklists, and press releases), please contact Art Resource (publication in North America) or Scala Archives (publication in all other geographic locations).

MoMA licenses archival audio and select out of copyright film clips from our film collection. At this time, MoMA produced video cannot be licensed by MoMA/Scala. All requests to license archival audio or out of copyright film clips should be addressed to Scala Archives at [email protected]. Motion picture film stills cannot be licensed by MoMA/Scala. For access to motion picture film stills for research purposes, please contact the Film Study Center at [email protected]. For more information about film loans and our Circulating Film and Video Library, please visit

If you would like to reproduce text from a MoMA publication, please email [email protected]. If you would like to publish text from MoMA’s archival materials, please fill out this permission form and send to [email protected].


This record is a work in progress. If you have additional information or spotted an error, please send feedback to [email protected].