Introduction
Edvard Munch (; Norwegian: [ˈɛdvɑʈ ˈmʊŋk] (listen); 12 December 1863 – 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian painter, whose best known work, The Scream, has become one of the most iconic images of world art. His childhood was overshadowed by illness, bereavement and the dread of inheriting a mental condition that ran in the family. Studying at the Royal School of Art and Design in Kristiania (today’s Oslo), Munch began to live a bohemian life under the influence of nihilist Hans Jæger, who urged him to paint his own emotional and psychological state ('soul painting'). From this would presently emerge his distinctive style. Travel brought new influences and new outlets. In Paris, he learned much from Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, especially their use of colour. In Berlin, he met Swedish dramatist August Strindberg, whom he painted, as he embarked on his major canon The Frieze of Life, depicting a series of deeply-felt themes such as love, anxiety, jealousy and betrayal, steeped in atmosphere. But it was back in Kristiania that his legendary work The Scream was conceived. According to Munch, he was out walking at sunset, when he ‘heard the enormous, infinite scream of nature’. That agonised face is widely identified with the angst of modern man. Between 1893 and 1910, he made two painted versions and two in pastels, as well as a number of prints. One of the pastels would eventually command the fourth highest nominal price paid for a painting at auction. As his fame and wealth grew, his emotional state remained as insecure as ever. He briefly considered marriage, but could not commit himself. A breakdown in 1908 forced him to give up heavy drinking, and he was cheered by his increasing acceptance by the people of Kristiania and exposure in the city’s museums. His later years were spent working in peace and privacy. Although his works were banned in Nazi Germany, most of them survived World War II, ensuring him a secure legacy.
Wikidata
Q41406
Information from Wikipedia, made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
Introduction
Munch, one of the most noted Norwegian artists, was concerned with the expressive representation of emotions and personal relationships in his work. He was associated with the international development of Symbolism during the 1890s and recognized as a major influence on Expressionism. His early work was conventionally naturalistic; by 1884, he belonged to the avant-garde circle of the painter Christian Krøhg. During stays in Paris between 1889 and1892 Munch was influenced by the symbolists, van Gogh, and, above all, Gauguin; it was during this time that he established his characteristic nervous linear style. An exhibition of more than 50 of Munch's work at the Berlin Kunstlerverein (Artists' Union) in 1892 was so scandalous that it was closed after a week with the repercussions leading to the formation of the Berlin Sezession in 1899. Much of the next ten years was spent in Berlin associating with writers such as Richard Dehmel and August Strindberg and creating works featuring his recurrent themes of sexual awareness, illness, jealousy, and insanity. These intense and disturbing works reflected not only Symbolist preoccupations but Munch's difficulties stemming from his own traumatic childhood during which his mother and sister died and his father nearly went mad. While in Berlin he produced his first prints, with lithographs and woodcuts becoming equally important to his paintings. In 1908, he suffered a nervous breakdown and in 1909 he returned permanently to Norway, deliberately abandoning his disturbing themes as part of his recovery. His work became more outgoing, his palette brighter, and his themes more optimistic although his self-portraits retained their earlier intensity. After 1916 Munch became increasingly reclusive and his work regained some of its earlier urgency. He lived at Ekely outside Oslo; when he died he left over 20,000 works to the city. During Munch's lifetime there were many exhibitions of his work in Oslo, Prague, Stockholm, and German cities. Comment on works: psychological Landscapes, genre
Nationalities
Norwegian, Scandinavian
Gender
Male
Roles
Artist, Lithographer, Woodcutter, Painter
Names
Edvard Munch, E. Munch, Ėdvard Munk, Edward Munch, אדווארד מונק, eduard munch, edv. munch, edward munch, Munch
Ulan
500032949
Information from Getty’s Union List of Artist Names ® (ULAN), made available under the ODC Attribution License