Paul Cézanne. The Bather. c. 1885
Paul Cézanne

The Bather

c. 1885
On view
Oil on canvas
50 x 38 1/8" (127 x 96.8 cm)
Lillie P. Bliss Collection
Object number
Painting and Sculpture

The Bather is one of Cézanne's most evocative paintings of the figure, although the unmuscled torso and arms have no heroic pretensions, and the drawing, in traditional, nineteenth-century terms, is awkward and imprecise. The bather's left, forward leg is placed firmly on the ground, but his right leg trails and carries no weight. The right side of his body is pulled higher than the left, the chin curves lopsidedly, and the right arm is elongated and oblique. The landscape is as bare as a desert, but its green, violet, and rose coloration refuses that name. Its dreaming expanse matches the bather's pensiveness. Likewise, the shadows on the body, rather than shifting to black, share the colors of the air, land, and water; and the brushwork throughout is a network of hatch-marks and dapples, restless yet extraordinarily refined. The figure moves toward us but does not meet our gaze.

These disturbances can be characterized as modern: they indicate that while Cézanne had an acute respect for much of traditional art, he did not represent the male nude the way the classical and Renaissance artists had done. He wanted to make an art that was "solid and durable like the art of the museums" but that also reflected a modern sensibility incorporating the new understanding of vision and light developed by the Impressionists. He wanted to make an art of his own time that rivaled the traditions of the past.

Publication excerpt from The Museum of Modern Art, MoMA Highlights, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, revised 2004, originally published 1999

Provenance Research Project
This work is included in the Provenance Research Project, which investigates the ownership history of works in MoMA's collection.
Ambroise Vollard (1866-1939), Paris, by 1900 [1]; sold to Paul Rosenberg (1881-1959), Paris, by 1917 [2]; sold to Marius de Zayas (1880-1961), New York [3]; sold to Lillie P. Bliss (1864-1931), New York, by 1921 [4]; acquired by The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1934 (Lillie P. Bliss Collection).
[1] John Rewald, The Paintings of Paul Cézanne, vol. 1, New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1996, no. 555. Vollard stockbook no. 3453[A] (1899-1904). Purchase price: 200 francs. Possibly included in the exhibition Figures de Cézanne, Galerie Vollard, June 27-July 23, 1910 (no. 1: Baigneur). Offered to the American collector John Quinn by Vollard around 1910 (see Robert Jensen,
"Vollard and Cézanne: An Anatomy of a Relationship," Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avantgarde, ed. by Rebecca Rabinow, exh. cat. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2006, p. 38).
[2] Rewald 1996, no. 555. Offered for sale at the exhibition Französische Kunst des XIX. und XX. Jahrhunderts, Kunsthaus Zurich, October 5-November 1917 (no. 38, repr.). Exhibited at Galerie Paul Rosenberg, Paris, in 1917.
[3] Rewald 1996, no. 555.
[4] Ibid. Lent anonymously to Loan Exhibition of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, May 3 to September 15, 1921 (no. 10).

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This work is on view on Floor 5, in Painting and Sculpture I, Gallery 1, with 20 other works online.
Paul Cézanne has 21 works online.
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