German Expressionism

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C. Naumann's Druckerei, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

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About this work

Heather Hess, German Expressionist Digital Archive Project, German Expressionism: Works from the Collection. 2011.

In the portfolio Hölle (Hell), Max Beckmann journeys, Virgil-like, through Berlin. These ten oversize lithographs present an unflinching look at social disintegration and civil violence after the catastrophe of World War I. Beckmann visited Berlin in March 1919, and depicts himself amid the misery in Hölle; his self-portrait appears in five prints and on the front cover, which, in a handwritten note, promises the viewer an entertaining spectacle.

Unlike many of his compatriots, including the disfigured veteran he encounters in the first print, Der Nachhauseweg (The way home), Beckmann came back whole. He presents a fragmented city, with bodies jutting out of the pictures' frames and figures contorted in impossible spaces. In Die Strasse (The street), a thoroughfare is bustling with daytime activity, yet no one notices the man being carried off, arms flailing, by another man. In Das Martyrium (The martyrdom), under the cover of night, communist leader Rosa Luxemburg is about to be murdered. Speeches, songs, and even last stands are futile. No place is safe: Beckmann transforms an attic into a torture chamber in Die Nacht (Night), while quiet desperation pervades his own family's home in Der Hunger (Hunger). In the final print, Die Familie (The family), Beckmann's young son, Peter, mistakes a grenade for a toy. Beckmann brings the hell of war home in these prints. His publisher, J. B. Neumann, did not sell any when he exhibited them in 1919.

Max Beckmann (German, 1884–1950)

Self-Portrait (front cover) (Selbstbildnis [Umschlag]) from Hell (Die Hölle)

(1918/1919, published 1919)
Cover lithograph, from a portfolio of eleven lithographs (including cover)
composition: 24 15/16 x 16 7/16" (63.4 x 41.7 cm)
Cream, smooth, wove on bookboard.
J. B. Neumann, Berlin
C. Naumann's Druckerei, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
125 (including 50 mounted on front cover of the portfolio [this ex.] and 75 without text as plate I of the portfolio); plus 18 known state proofs
Credit Line:
© 2016 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn
Glaser 121. Gallwitz 113. Hofmaier 139 II.
MoMA Number:
City Life, Portraits, Postwar Politics

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