David Hammons African American Flag 1990

  • Not on view

Hammons’s African American Flag reimagines the United States flag, replacing its colors with the red, green, and black of the Pan-African Universal Negro Improvement Association, founded in 1914.

Hammons created this version of African American Flag—one in an edition of 10—for the exhibition Who’s Ice Is Colder at Jack Tilton Gallery in New York in fall 1990. The installation featured African American Flag alongside the flags of South Korea and Yemen. Each of the flags was suspended above an oil drum containing a block of ice that gradually melted—a sly send-up on the rivalries that existed among the three communities over the ownership of neighborhood corner stores and bodegas throughout New York City.

Hammons first devised African American Flag for the exhibition Black USA at the Museum Overholland in Amsterdam in spring 1990.

Additional text from 2022
Canvas and grommets
59 × 94 1/2" (149.9 × 240 cm)
10 (This edition was the second version of Hammons's African American Flag.)
Promised gift to The Museum of Modern Art and The Studio Museum in Harlem by the Hudgins Family in memory of Jack Tilton
Object number
Painting and Sculpture

Installation views

We have identified these works in the following photos from our exhibition history.

How we identified these works

In 2018–19, MoMA collaborated with Google Arts & Culture Lab on a project using machine learning to identify artworks in installation photos. That project has concluded, and works are now being identified by MoMA staff.

If you notice an error, please contact us at [email protected].


If you would like to reproduce an image of a work of art in MoMA’s collection, or an image of a MoMA publication or archival material (including installation views, checklists, and press releases), please contact Art Resource (publication in North America) or Scala Archives (publication in all other geographic locations).

MoMA licenses archival audio and select out of copyright film clips from our film collection. At this time, MoMA produced video cannot be licensed by MoMA/Scala. All requests to license archival audio or out of copyright film clips should be addressed to Scala Archives at [email protected]. Motion picture film stills cannot be licensed by MoMA/Scala. For access to motion picture film stills for research purposes, please contact the Film Study Center at [email protected]. For more information about film loans and our Circulating Film and Video Library, please visit https://www.moma.org/research/circulating-film.

If you would like to reproduce text from a MoMA publication, please email [email protected]. If you would like to publish text from MoMA’s archival materials, please fill out this permission form and send to [email protected].


This record is a work in progress. If you have additional information or spotted an error, please send feedback to [email protected].