Gordon Parks. Emerging Man, Harlem, New York. 1952. Gelatin silver print, 8 7/16 × 12 7/8" (21.4 × 32.7 cm). © 2022 Gordon Parks Foundation, Acquired through the generosity of The Friends of Education of The Museum of Modern Art and Committee on Photography Fund

“I chose my camera as a weapon against all the things I dislike about America—poverty, racism, discrimination.”

Gordon Parks

“I chose my camera as a weapon against all the things I dislike about America—poverty, racism, discrimination,” Gordon Parks asserted.1 Born in 1912 in Fort Scott, Kansas, Parks was the youngest of 15 children in a family deeply affected by the racial terror used to enforce Jim Crow segregation. Yet Parks’s experience of Black life in America ultimately straddled geographies, economic strata, and social circumstance.

When Parks lost his mother at 15, he moved from his small Kansas town to St. Paul, Minnesota, to live with his sister. He was exposed to both urban and rural poverty and the racial hierarchies of the South and North: he survived an attempted lynching; endured a period of homelessness; composed a radio hit; worked as a waiter; toured with a semi-professional basketball team; played in a traveling orchestra; planted trees with the Civilian Conservation Corps; and became a father. After getting his first camera in 1937, Parks went to work as a photographer for the Farm Security Administration, before becoming a regular contributor to Ebony and Vogue. In 1949, he became the first African American staff photographer at Life magazine; in 1969, he became the first African American to direct a major Hollywood film, The Learning Tree. Parks’s list of accomplishments stands as a testament to his skill and resourcefulness as a photographer, filmmaker, memoirist, novelist, choreographer, composer, and poet, but what is most remarkable is how these experiences shaped his powerfully humanizing vision.

Parks was an advocate for civil rights and tackled issues of race, poverty, and policing in America throughout his career. In his 1948 photo essay “Harlem Gang Leader,” Parks documents the life of 17-year-old Leonard “Red” Jackson with the hope of humanizing the individuals involved in Harlem gang wars and encouraging support for the community through social programs.2 Throughout the 1960s, Parks reflected on the Civil Rights Movement; his portrait of Malcolm X at a Harlem rally positions the popular activist as a powerful figure between the people amassed before him and the state, symbolized by the fragmented flag to which he points. In 1971, Parks directed the blockbuster Shaft, which upends racial stereotypes in its portrayal of John Shaft, a Black hero detective who takes down white criminals.3

In 1957, Parks was assigned to photograph for a series of articles addressing crime in the United States. With reporter Henry Suydam, Parks shot on the streets of New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, and San Francisco, producing color images that evoke what Life described as “The Atmosphere of Crime.” From this larger body of work, 12 pictures were reproduced in the September 9 issue of Life. Shot with available light, figures become silhouettes; the soft haze of a hallway feels warm as a man raises his hands; a person’s legs lay bare the scars of poverty and addiction. Parks does not name or identify “the criminal,” but instead exposes what Nicole Fleetwood describes as “police work”—the policing practices that criminalize poverty and race.4 Here, police work is rendered as violent and bureaucratic: detectives raid an apartment, attack a man in the hallway, file paperwork, speak on the radio, file more paperwork while we wait. The series speaks to a pivotal moment in a long history of policing in America that extends from the patrolling of enslaved people to this moment in 1957, shortly before Lyndon B. Johnson’s war on crime and the increasing militarization of the police. Considered today, Parks’s work on crime becomes a catalyst for reevaluating the intertwined histories of photography and criminality in the United States: a story of surveillance and racialized optics in which we are still entrenched.

The signs in Parks’s 1963 photograph Harlem Rally, Harlem, New York echo the refrain of protests against the police state and anti-Black racism then and now, during an unprecedented movement in defense of Black life: WE ARE LIVING IN A POLICE STATE / LIBERTY OR DEATH. The abolitionist call articulated within the frame reverberates across the photograph; the refrain repeats.5 Today, Parks’s photographs offer the opportunity to reckon with the hard truths of our history.

River Bullock, Beaumont and Nancy Newhall Curatorial Fellow, Department of Photography, 2020

  1. Gordon Parks, A Choice of Weapons (1966; repr., Minneapolis: Minneapolis Historical Society Press, 2010).

  2. For an insightful analysis of the editorial process Parks’s images underwent in Life magazine, see Russell Lord, Gordon Parks: The Making of an Argument (Pleasantville, NY: The Gordon Parks Foundation and The New Orleans Museum of Art with Steidl, 2013).

  3. Maurice Berger, “’Shaft’? We’re Talking About Gordon Parks…and We Can Dig It” Race Stories, The New York Times, May 24, 2019, accessed June 30, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/24/lens/shaft-gordon-parks-photos.html

  4. Nicole Fleetwood, “Policing and the Production of Crime” in Sarah Hermanson Meister, Gordon Parks: The Atmosphere of Crime, 1957 (Pleasantville, NY: The Gordon Parks Foundation and Steidl, 2020).

  5. For transformative thinking on the sonic potentials of photographs and the chorus, see Tina Campt, Listening to Images (Durham: Duke University Press, 2018) and Saidiya Hartman, Wayward Lives, Beautiful Experiments: Intimate Histories of Social Upheaval (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2019).

Wikipedia entry
Gordon Roger Alexander Buchanan Parks (November 30, 1912 – March 7, 2006) was an American photographer, composer, author, poet, and film director, who became prominent in U.S. documentary photojournalism in the 1940s through 1970s—particularly in issues of civil rights, poverty and African Americans—and in glamour photography. He is best remembered for his iconic photos of poor Americans during the 1940s (taken for a federal government project), for his photographic essays for Life magazine, and as the director of the films Shaft, Shaft's Big Score and the semiautobiographical The Learning Tree. Parks was one of the first black American filmmakers to direct films within the Hollywood system, developing films relating the experience of slaves and struggling black Americans, and helping create the "blaxploitation" genre. The National Film Registry cites The Learning Tree as "the first feature film by a black director to be financed by a major Hollywood studio."
Information from Wikipedia, made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
Getty record
Self-taught, Parks worked as a photographer for the Farm Security Administration from 1942-1943, Life Magazine from 1948-1961, where he was the first black staff photographer; and as a freelance fashion photographer. He directed films in the 1960s and 1970s including "The Learning Tree" and "Shaft," composed music, and was the author of several books, mostly memoirs.
American, African American
Artist, Author, Film Director, Composer, Writer, Photographer
Gordon Parks, Gordon Alexander Buchanan Parks, Gordon Roger Alexander Buchanan Parks
Information from Getty’s Union List of Artist Names ® (ULAN), made available under the ODC Attribution License


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