Auguste Rodin. Monument to Balzac. 1898 (cast 1954). Bronze, 9' 3" × 48 1/4" × 41" (282 × 122.5 × 104.2 cm). Presented in memory of Curt Valentin by his friends

“The main thing is to be moved, to love, to hope, to tremble, to live. Be a man before being an artist!”

Auguste Rodin

For Auguste Rodin, the sculpture St. John the Baptist Preaching began with a knock on his studio door. “An Italian entered,” the artist recalled, a rural laborer named Pignatelli who had recently arrived in Paris. “The peasant undressed, climbed onto the table as if he had never posed before; he stood firmly, head raised, torso straight, carrying himself at the same time on both legs, open like a compass. The movement was so right, so clear, and so true that I cried out: ‘But it’s a man walking!’”1 Rodin resolved to convey in sculpture the balanced yet dynamic stride of his new model, a man whose lean body reminded him of the itinerant preacher John the Baptist. The completed sculpture, however, would diverge from traditional representations of this historical figure regarded as a prophet by Christians. Stripped of the objects that typically accompany the preacher in Christian art, Rodin’s John the Baptist appears as an ordinary man rather than a saint. “I only copied the model,”2 the artist later explained. By training his eyes on Pignatelli’s hardened features and impromptu gesture, Rodin reimagined a long-established subject for the modern era. And in doing so, he reimagined modern sculpture.

Rodin began St. John the Baptist Preaching in 1878 and exhibited a plaster cast of the work at the Paris Salon of 1880. During this period, the artist’s studies of the head, chest, and legs of his model began to interest him in their own right. Soon, he abandoned the idea that sculptures should depict only intact bodies, stating that a carefully crafted hand or a torso could be as expressive as a face or even an entire figure. This innovative approach to the human form—the repeated examination of its component parts, both in isolation and in concert with one another—eventually resulted in The Walking Man, a headless and armless figure adapted from preparatory works for St. John the Baptist Preaching. Rodin displayed this unconventional work at his first solo show, held in Paris in 1900, then proceeded to include small and large versions in exhibitions throughout Europe. While many critics deemed The Walking Man incomplete and therefore imperfect, the artist himself considered it one of his best works precisely because, in his words, “all is not there.”3

The same year that Rodin exhibited St. John the Baptist Preaching, he received a commission from the French government for a monumental doorway to a future museum of decorative arts. Sketching ideas on paper and in clay, the artist developed a complex program for the portal based on Dante’s Divine Comedy, a 14th-century epic poem that follows the lengthy journey of its narrator through Christian hell, purgatory, and paradise. It was the poem’s account of the underworld that most captivated Rodin, setting him and his assistants on their own multiyear journey to produce The Gates of Hell. This project, like the artist’s previous sculptures, modernizes its canonical source. Rodin included specific characters from the Divine Comedy, such as The Three Shades, an enigmatic trio that stands above the doorframe and—in a way that anticipates the importance of seriality to 20th-century sculpture—comprises three casts of the same figure. Yet Rodin interspersed the Shades and other characters with his own highly personal visions of suffering inspired by art, literature, religion, and mythology. The result is a churning composition of over 100 figures and figural groups shaped by years of studio experimentation. Ultimately, the museum for which the doors were intended never materialized, though Rodin and his collaborators managed to construct a full-sized plaster cast by 1900. In fact, the artist would derive independent sculptures from The Gates of Hell for the rest of his life, routinely selecting figures from the work, like The Thinker, to be enlarged or reduced, carved in marble or cast in bronze. Repetition, during these years, became a key formal strategy.

In addition, Rodin continued to secure new commissions that brought widespread recognition—and often, controversy. One such commission came from a literary society that wished to erect a statue of the novelist Honoré de Balzac. As with The Gates of Hell, Rodin scrutinized his subject for years. While a more traditional artist might have turned to ancient Greek or Roman sculptures as models, Rodin instead gathered visual and verbal portraits of Balzac, who had died in 1850, and hired models resembling the writer; he even obtained made-to-order clothing with Balzac’s measurements. Next, Rodin generated numerous drawn and sculpted studies, variously presenting Balzac as young and middle-aged, as striding and reclining, as naked and dressed. After seven years of intensive work, a plaster cast of the Monument to Balzac was at last unveiled at the Paris Salon of 1898. Its abstracted form, pronounced slant, and coarse surface divided the art world, prompting the critic Jules Claretie to state that “one had to be for or against Rodin.”4 The society that had commissioned the sculpture was “against,” refusing to accept it, while numerous writers, artists, and politicians defended Rodin. The artist himself was devastated but defiant, convinced that his Balzac had made sculpture modern.

Annemarie Iker, independent scholar, 2021

Note: opening quote is from Herbert Read, A Concise History of Modern Sculpture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), 14.

  1. Auguste Rodin quoted in François Dujardin-Beaumetz, Entretiens avec Rodin (Paris: Paul Dupont, 1913), 65.

  2. Ibid, 66.

  3. Rodin, quoted in Albert E. Elsen, Rodin’s Art (New York: The Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Stanford University in Association with Oxford University Press, 2003), 551.

  4. Jules Claretie, “La Vie à Paris,” Le Temps (5 May 1898): 2.

Wikipedia entry
François Auguste René Rodin (12 November 1840 – 17 November 1917) was a French sculptor, generally considered the founder of modern sculpture. He was schooled traditionally and took a craftsman-like approach to his work. Rodin possessed a unique ability to model a complex, turbulent, and deeply pocketed surface in clay. He is known for such sculptures as The Thinker, Monument to Balzac, The Kiss, The Burghers of Calais, and The Gates of Hell. Many of Rodin's most notable sculptures were criticized, as they clashed with predominant figurative sculpture traditions in which works were decorative, formulaic, or highly thematic. Rodin's most original work departed from traditional themes of mythology and allegory. He modeled the human body with naturalism, and his sculptures celebrate individual character and physicality. Although Rodin was sensitive to the controversy surrounding his work, he refused to change his style, and his continued output brought increasing favor from the government and the artistic community. From the unexpected naturalism of Rodin's first major figure – inspired by his 1875 trip to Italy – to the unconventional memorials whose commissions he later sought, his reputation grew, and Rodin became the preeminent French sculptor of his time. By 1900, he was a world-renowned artist. Wealthy private clients sought Rodin's work after his World's Fair exhibit, and he kept company with a variety of high-profile intellectuals and artists. His student, Camille Claudel, became his associate, lover, and creative rival. Rodin's other students included Antoine Bourdelle, Constantin Brâncuși, and Charles Despiau. He married his lifelong companion, Rose Beuret, in the last year of both their lives. His sculptures suffered a decline in popularity after his death in 1917, but within a few decades his legacy solidified. Rodin remains one of the few sculptors widely known outside the visual arts community.
Information from Wikipedia, made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
Getty record
One of the most successful, prolific, and influential sculptors of the modern age, regarded during his lifetime as a genius of the caliber of Michelangelo. Comment on works: sculptor
Artist, Art Collector, Etcher, Genre Artist, Painter, Sculptor
Auguste Rodin, Francois A. Rene Rodin, François-Auguste-René Rodin, François Auguste Rodin, Ogi︠u︡st Roden, Rodin, Lo-tan, Rodan, François Auguste René Rodin, René François Auguste Rodin, a. rodin, august rodin, e. rodin, rodin, rodin a., aug. rodin, rodin auguste
Information from Getty’s Union List of Artist Names ® (ULAN), made available under the ODC Attribution License


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  • MoMA Highlights: 375 Works from The Museum of Modern Art Flexibound, 408 pages
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  • The Original Copy: Photography of Sculpture, 1839 to Today Exhibition catalogue, Hardcover, 256 pages
  • Rodin Exhibition catalogue, Paperback, pages
  • Rodin Exhibition catalogue, Clothbound, pages

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