Wikipedia entry
Ralf Winkler, alias A. R. Penck, who also used the pseudonyms Mike Hammer, T. M., Mickey Spilane, Theodor Marx, "a. Y." or just "Y" (5 October 1939 – 2 May 2017) was a German painter, printmaker, sculptor, and jazz drummer. A neo-expressionist, he became known for his visual style, reminiscent of the influence of primitive art.
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Getty record
Mostly self-taught artist lived in the Communist GDR until 1980, when he was expatriated to West Germany. As early as 1960 he began to create paintings of stick figures and a range of pictograms that he called Standarts. From the early 1980s he was recognized for his primitive images, which he rendered in paintings, prints, and sculpture, and was acknowledged as a leader of the German Neo-Expressionist movement.
German, East German, Irish
Artist, Author, Cinematographer, Costume Designer, Manager, Publicist, Writer, Musician, Set Designer, Graphic Artist, Painter, Sculptor
A. R. Penck, R. A. Penck, A.R. Penck, A.R. Penck (Ralf Winkler), A. A. Penck, Ralf Winkler, Ralph Winkler, Y, Ypsilon, Alpha, Mike Hammer, TM, T. M., Tancred Mitchel, Tancred Mitschel, Theodor Marx
Information from Getty’s Union List of Artist Names ® (ULAN), made available under the ODC Attribution License


101 works online



  • Ileana Sonnabend: Ambassador for the New Exhibition catalogue, Hardcover, 172 pages
  • New Work on Paper 2: Borofsky, Clemente, Merz, Penck, Penone Exhibition catalogue, Paperback, pages

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