Louise Nevelson’s sculptures tend to be big, which would not be so extraordinary were it not for the fact that working on such a scale tended to be a hard-won achievement for women artists of her generation. Consider a work like Sky Cathedral (1958), which MoMA purchased the same year Nevelson finished it. Standing over 11 feet tall and 10 feet wide, this sculptural assemblage comprises pieces of wood that the artist joined together and then coated in black paint. Despite the uniformity of its surface color, Nevelson’s work offers us a lot to see. There are crevices and shadows, hairline cracks and rough grain, as well as objects that are easily recognizable and others that seem eerily familiar. Like so many of her titles, Sky Cathedral alludes to the poetic associations Nevelson envisioned for the humble scraps of wood she assembled, in this case into a towering facade.

Wood was a familiar material to Nevelson’s family, though the artist herself balked at any biographical connection to her selected medium.1 She was born to Jewish parents living near Kiev (now Kyiv) when the region was part of the Russian Empire. Her father immigrated to the United States in 1902 to work in the lumber trade. Three years later, Nevelson and the rest of the family joined him in Rockland, Maine; she spent the remainder of her childhood there, moving as a young adult to New York City in 1920. Over the next 15 years, Nevelson would gradually pursue formal training in artmaking and occasionally exhibit paintings and sculpture. It was only after she moved to lower Manhattan in the early 1940s, however, that she began making her assemblages. She filled her studio space with materials that she salvaged from the surrounding neighborhood, favoring wood because it was an inexpensive and readily available resource.2

Nevelson found commercial success only after she began painting her constructions with a single color in the 1950s. The use of color—first black, later white, and then gold—would become essential to Nevelson’s process of making compositions from found pieces of wood. “It’s like a marriage,” Nevelson observed. “You are not the total actor; you play with another actor, and my play with the other are my materials. Sometimes they tell me something and sometimes I speak to them, so that there is a constant communication toward a oneness, for that unity, for the harmony, and for the totality.”3 In That Silent Place (1954–55), the artist arranged wooden blocks so that their imperfections help create a relationship among the parts. A few pieces lean to one side, while others are not quite square. Holes meant for screws, nails, or dowels remain empty. Nevelson arranges these elements into a pattern of structure and void that evokes a cityscape.4

The artist did not limit her idea of “oneness” to discrete objects. By the end of the 1950s, her investigations into space grew into room-sized environments. Dawn’s Wedding Feast filled an entire gallery with wall constructions as well as freestanding and hanging columns and other elements reminiscent of architectural forms.5

Nevelson was spontaneous when she worked, often making decisions as she made her compositions.6 This improvisational process was as true for her wooden wall reliefs as for work in other mediums that she subsequently explored. Fellowships at the Tamarind Lithography Workshop in Los Angeles in 1963 and 1967 gave Nevelson the opportunity to expand her practice to printmaking. She approached the lithographic medium with experimental zeal, investigating materials and methods that were uncommon in printmaking but consistent with assemblage, such as using fabrics and cut paper to create compositions on the plate.7

A sense of discovery allowed Nevelson, even in the late years of her practice, to continue testing out new approaches and mediums, from embossing thin plates of lead to designing sculptures in aluminum and Plexiglass to making public art projects in weathering steel. “It is not the medium that counts,” Nevelson said. “It is what you see in it and what you do with it.”8

Erica DiBenedetto, Curatorial Assistant, Department of Painting and Sculpture, 2022

  1. Nevelson makes this point in the broadcast video interview “Barbaralee Diamonstein and Louise Nevelson,” 1978. Barbaralee Diamonstein-Spielvogel Audiovisual Materials, 1956–2018 and undated, bulk 1950–2018, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dfHezipOC_4.

  2. See the artist’s comments in oral history interview with Louise Nevelson, 1964 June–1965 Jan. 14 and undated. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, https://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/interviews/oral-history-interview-louise-nevelson-13259#transcript; and as quoted in Grace Glueck, “No Little Flowers Please,” The New York Times, March 12, 1967, D29.

  3. Oral history interview with Louise Nevelson.

  4. See Edward Albee, ed. Louise Nevelson: Atmospheres and Environments, exh. cat. (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1980), 56.

  5. Dorothy C. Miller, ed., Sixteen Americans, exh. cat. (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1959), 94.

  6. See, for example, Jonathan Lippincott’s memories of Nevelson making work onsite at his family’s fabrication business in “Jonathan Lippincott talks about Large Scale,” Artforum, April 27, 2011, https://www.artforum.com/interviews/jonathan-lippincott-talks-about-large-scale-28086.

  7. For a description of Nevelson’s printmaking techniques, see Una E. Johnson, Louise Nevelson: Prints and Drawings, 1953–1966, exh. cat. (Brooklyn: The Brooklyn Museum, 1967), 12.

  8. As quoted in Ann Holmes, “For Nevelson, It’s Not the Medium, But What You ‘See’,” Houston Chronicle, October 23, 1969.

Wikipedia entry
Introduction
Louise Nevelson (September 23, 1899 – April 17, 1988) was an American sculptor known for her monumental, monochromatic, wooden wall pieces and outdoor sculptures. Born in the Poltava Governorate of the Russian Empire (present-day Kyiv Oblast, Ukraine), she emigrated with her family to the United States in the early 20th century. Nevelson learned English at school, as she spoke Yiddish at home. By the early 1930s she was attending art classes at the Art Students League of New York, and in 1941 she had her first solo exhibition. A student of Hans Hofmann and Chaim Gross, Nevelson experimented with early conceptual art using found objects, and dabbled in painting and printing before dedicating her lifework to sculpture. Usually created out of wood, her sculptures appear puzzle-like, with multiple intricately cut pieces placed into wall sculptures or independently standing pieces, often 3-D. The sculptures are typically painted in monochromatic black or white. A figure in the international art scene, Nevelson was showcased at the 31st Venice Biennale. Her work is seen in major collections in museums and corporations. Nevelson remains one of the most important figures in 20th-century American sculpture.
Wikidata
Q7531
Information from Wikipedia, made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
Getty record
Introduction
American sculptor, born in Ukraine.
Nationalities
American, Russian, Ukrainian
Gender
Female
Roles
Artist, Painter, Sculptor
Names
Louise Nevelson, Louise Berliawsky, Louise née Berliawsky
Ulan
500001621
Information from Getty’s Union List of Artist Names ® (ULAN), made available under the ODC Attribution License

Works

62 works online

Exhibitions

Publications

  • MoMA Highlights: 375 Works from The Museum of Modern Art Flexibound, 408 pages
  • MoMA Now: Highlights from The Museum of Modern Art—Ninetieth Anniversary Edition Hardcover, 424 pages
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