Introduction
Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud, commonly called J. J. P. Oud (9 February 1890 – 5 April 1963) was a Dutch architect. His fame began as a follower of the De Stijl movement. Oud was born in Purmerend, the son of a tobacco and wine merchant. As a young architect, he was influenced by Berlage, and studied under Theodor Fischer in Munich for a time. He worked together with W.M. Dudok in Leiden, which is where he also met Theo van Doesburg and became involved with the movement De Stijl. Between 1918 and 1933, Oud became Municipal Housing Architect for Rotterdam. During this period when many laborers were coming to the city, he mostly worked on socially progressive residential projects. This included projects in the areas of Spangen, Kiefhoek and the Witte Dorp. Oud was one of a number of Dutch architects who attempted to reconcile strict, rational, 'scientific' cost-effective construction technique against the psychological needs and aesthetic expectations of the users. His own answer was to practice 'poetic functionalism'. In 1927, he was one of the fifteen architects who contributed to the influential modernist Weissenhof Estate exhibition. In America Oud is perhaps best known for being lauded and adopted by the mainstream modernist movement, then summarily kicked out on stylistic grounds. As of 1932, he was considered one of the four greatest modern architects (along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier), and was prominently featured in Philip Johnson's International Style exhibition. Johnson maintained a correspondence with Oud, tried to help him get work, commissioned a house for his mother (never built), and sent him socks and bicycle tires. In 1945, after the end of World War II allowed photographs of Oud's 1941 Shell Headquarters building in The Hague to be published in America, the architectural press sarcastically condemned his use of ornament ("embroidery") as contrary to the spirit of modernism.After World War II, Oud designed the Dutch National War Monument in Amsterdam and the monument of the Military War Cemetery Grebbeberg. By then, he had mostly let go of any Stijl influences. He continued to take a highly individualistic stance against mainstream modernism. He designed projects such as the Spaarbank in Rotterdam, office-building De Utrecht in Rotterdam and the Children's health-centre in Arnhem (Bio-herstellingsoord). Oud's brother, Pieter Oud was mayor of Rotterdam. Oud died in 1963 at the age of 73 in Wassenaar.
Wikidata
Q470588
Information from Wikipedia, made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
Introduction
Born 9 February 1890; died 5 April 1963. Educated at the Quellinus Arts and Crafts School, Amsterdam; Rijksnormal School, Amsterdam; Technical Universit, Delft, Netherlands. Worked in the offices of Cuypers and Stuyt, Amsterdam, and of Theodor Fischer, Munich. In private practice, Purmerend, Netherlands, 1913-14. Worked with W.M. Dudok, in his studio, Leiden, Netherlands, 1915-16; in private practice, Leiden, Netherlands, 1916-18; City Architect, Rotterdam, 1918-33; in private practice, Rotterdam, 1933-54, and in Wassenaar, near The Hague, 1954 until his death in 1963.
Nationalities
Dutch, Netherlandish
Gender
Male
Roles
Artist, Author, Architect, Urban planner, Furniture designer, Interior designer
Names
Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud, J. J. P. Oud, J J. P. Oud, J. J. Pieter Oud
Ulan
500026000
Information from Getty’s Union List of Artist Names ® (ULAN), made available under the ODC Attribution License