Wikipedia entry
Honoré-Victorin Daumier (French: [ɔnɔʁe domje]; February 26, 1808 – February 10 or 11, 1879) was a French painter, sculptor, and printmaker, whose many works offer commentary on the social and political life in France, from the Revolution of 1830 to the fall of the second Napoleonic Empire in 1870. He earned a living producing caricatures and cartoons in newspapers and periodicals such as La Caricature and Le Charivari, for which he became well known in his lifetime and is still remembered today. He was a republican democrat (working class liberal), who satirized and lampooned the monarchy, politicians, the judiciary, lawyers, the bourgeoisie, as well as his countrymen and human nature in general. He was also a serious painter, loosely associated with realism, sometimes blurring the boundaries between caricature and fine art. Although he occasionally exhibited at the Parisian Salon, his paintings were largely overlooked and ignored by the French public and critics of the day. Yet Daumier's fellow painters, as well as the poet and art critic Charles Baudelaire, noticed and greatly admired his work. Later generations would recognize Daumier as one of the great French artists of the 19th century, profoundly influencing a younger generation of impressionist and postimpressionist painters. Daumier was a tireless and prolific artist and produced more than 100 sculptures, 500 paintings, 1000 drawings, 1000 wood engravings, and 4000 lithographs. Honoré Daumier came from a poor family and was working by the age of 12, first at a huissier de justice, then at a bookstore frequented by artists where he began to draw. He received some mentorship from Alexandre Lenoir, attended the Académie Suisse, learned lithography, and was producing advertisements, illustrations, and caricatures by the time he was twenty. After the July Revolution of 1830 he begin working for satirical political papers that were highly critical of the new monarch Louis Philippe I and his court. He was jailed for several months in 1832 after the publication of Gargantua, a particularly offensive depiction of the King, Louis Philippe. After his release Daumier resumed publishing political lithographs until the September Laws were passed in 1835, limiting the freedom of the press. Afterwards, his cartoons softened, the bourgeoisie and daily Parisian life were more frequent subjects, and when political subjects did appear they were oblique and vailed. Daumier experienced financial hardships and debt throughout much of his life. Daumier married Alexandrine Dassy in 1846 and moved to the Île Saint-Louis where they lived until 1863. He increasingly associated with writers, poets, painters, and sculptors there, including Baudelaire, Corot, Courbet, Delacroix among others, and began to paint in earnest. He spent his summers from 1853 onward in Barbizon and Valmondois, where artists of the Barbizon school and realist movement worked. As his desire to paint intensified, his enthusiasm for cartooning declined, as did his popularity with the public. Le Charivari stopped publishing his comics in 1860. A period of finical hardship followed, and from 1863‒65 he moved to a series of lodgings around Montmartre and lost contact with many friends. Le Charivari gave him a new contract in 1864 and he resumed making caricatures for an appreciative audience in Paris. Daumier moved to Valmondois in 1865. He experienced failing eyesight and poverty there, although he continued to produce lithographs and paint, often on the theme of Don Quixote. The French Third Republic granted him a pension in 1877, and the following year a major exhibition of his paintings was held in Paris, which received significant recognition in the final months of his life. Daumier died in February of 1879. Various sources give conflicting dates regarding the day of his death: some state February 10, 1879, others February 11.: 37 & 40p. : 10 p.
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Getty record
The Parisian public admired Daumier as the newspaper caricaturist who so perceptively skewered their daily lives, but they never accepted him as a painter. Daumier died blind and a pauper without ever having received a painting commission. A glazier's son who moved to Paris at age eight, Daumier spent his time after apprentice jobs copying works in the Louvre. When a museum official persuaded his parents to allow him to become an artist, he began his artistic training, mastering the new medium of lithography. Comment on works: genre
Artist, Publisher, Caricaturist, Lithographer, Genre Artist, Graphic Artist, Painter, Sculptor
Honoré Daumier, Honore Daumier, Honoré Victorin Daumier, Honore Victorin Daumier, Domie, Onorē Domjē, Onore Viktorʹen Domʹe, Domiyeh, דומייה, Honoré-Victorin Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, Daumier, daumier h., daumier honore, h. daumier, Honoré de Daumier
Information from Getty’s Union List of Artist Names ® (ULAN), made available under the ODC Attribution License



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