Related themes

Sets, Stories, and Situations

Throughout photography’s history, photographers have staged images to evoke literature, films, real events, and, sometimes, the artifice of the medium itself.

Madonna with Children

Julia Margaret Cameron
(British, 1815–1879)

1864. Albumen silver print, 10 1/2 x 8 5/8" (26.7 x 21.9 cm)

Although Julia Margaret Cameron took up photography relatively late in life, she embraced the medium, producing a distinctive body of work. Mother to a large family of children, her turn to photography was prompted by the gift of a camera from her only daughter in 1863. She was soon making sensitive portraits of some of the most notable Victorians of her day, among them author Charles Dickens and philosopher and historian Thomas Carlyle. Cameron also cast her friends, family members, and strangers alike in allegorical roles for staged scenes based on art historical, biblical, literary, and romantic themes—irrespective of their social standing in the rigid Victorian class system.

Many of Cameron’s images feature women in idealized scenes of motherhood, as in Madonna with Children. Here she evokes the Virgin Mary with this tender vision of a mother and her two children surrounded by what appears to be a large white halo. She often draped her subjects in dark cloaks and set them against plain backgrounds, which lend a timeless quality to her images. By adjusting the focus of her lens to create a soft, slightly blurred effect, she referenced the qualities of painting. Cameron and her pictorialist contemporaries pursued painterly compositions, subjects, and qualities, hoping to elevate photography to a high art.

A representation of a person or thing in a work of art.

A setting for or a part of a story or narrative.

A work of art made from paint applied to canvas, wood, paper, or another support (noun).

The visual or narrative focus of a work of art.

A representation of a particular individual, usually intended to capture their likeness or personality.

An international style of photography in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, characterized by the creation of artistic tableaus and photographs composed of multiple prints or manipulated negatives, in an effort to advocate for photography as an artistic medium on par with painting.

The materials used to create a work of art, and the categorization of art based on the materials used (for example, painting [or more specifically, watercolor], drawing, sculpture).

The arrangement of the individual elements within a work of art so as to form a unified whole; also used to refer to a work of art, music, or literature, or its structure or organization.

The area of an artwork that appears farthest away from the viewer; also, the area against which a figure or scene is placed.