Marcel Broodthaers. Le Problème noir en Belgique (The Black Problem in Belgium). 1963–64

Marcel Broodthaers Le Problème noir en Belgique (The Black Problem in Belgium) 1963–64

  • Not on view

A poet-turned-artist who incorporated language and everyday materials into his work, Broodthaers created Le Problème noir en Belgique (The Black Problem in Belgium) in reference to the Belgian colonial rule of the Congo and its enduring ramifications for the African nation following independence in 1960.

The artist incorporated a copy of the January 19–20, 1964, issue of Le Soir, one of Belgium’s most widely read newspapers, into the composition by folding and dramatically nailing it to a decorative-paper board and then obscuring the text with imitation eggshells and black paint. The one remaining headline, “The Congo Must Be Saved,” belongs to an article by Moïse Tshombe, the eventual prime minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1964 to 1965, calling on Belgium to recognize its own hand in the economic and political difficulties facing the former colony, including those related to infrastructure, education, and unemployment. The superimposed eggshells, which figure prominently in the artist’s visual vocabulary, appealed to Broodthaers as a symbol of life and creative potential, although their unnatural color and substance (in this case, plastic) appear to suggest the opposite. In this powerful assemblage, the content of the article in combination with the poetic resonance of the black eggshells and splattered paint imply a sense of physical impact and violence, evoking the bloody history of Belgium’s colonial past.

Publication excerpt from MoMA Highlights: 375 Works from The Museum of Modern Art, New York (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2019)
Newspaper, painted plastic eggs, paint, and nail on found decorative-paper board
19 × 15 3/8 × 2 1/2" (48.3 × 39.1 × 6.4 cm)
Acquired through the generosity of Ronald S. and Jo Carole Lauder, Marlene Hess and James D. Zirin, Marie-Josée and Henry R. Kravis, Catie and Donald Marron, Sue and Edgar Wachenheim III, and Committee on Drawings and Prints Fund, in honor of Herman J. Daled and Nicole Daled-Verstraeten
Object number
© 2021 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / SABAM, Brussels
Drawings and Prints

Installation views

How we identified these works

In 2018–19, MoMA collaborated with Google Arts & Culture Lab on a project using machine learning to identify artworks in installation photos. That project has concluded, and works are now being identified by MoMA staff.

If you notice an error, please contact us at [email protected].


If you would like to reproduce an image of a work of art in MoMA’s collection, or an image of a MoMA publication or archival material (including installation views, checklists, and press releases), please contact Art Resource (publication in North America) or Scala Archives (publication in all other geographic locations).

All requests to license audio or video footage produced by MoMA should be addressed to Scala Archives at [email protected]. Motion picture film stills or motion picture footage from films in MoMA’s Film Collection cannot be licensed by MoMA/Scala. For licensing motion picture film footage it is advised to apply directly to the copyright holders. For access to motion picture film stills please contact the Film Study Center. More information is also available about the film collection and the Circulating Film and Video Library.

If you would like to reproduce text from a MoMA publication, please email [email protected]. If you would like to publish text from MoMA’s archival materials, please fill out this permission form and send to [email protected].


This record is a work in progress. If you have additional information or spotted an error, please send feedback to [email protected].