Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Friedrichstrasse Skyscraper Project, Berlin-Mitte, Germany (Exterior perspective from north). 1921
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Friedrichstrasse Skyscraper Project, Berlin-Mitte, Germany (Exterior perspective from north)

1921
Not on view
Medium
Charcoal and graphite on paper mounted on board
Dimensions
68 1/4 x 48" (173.4 x 121.9 cm)
Credit
Mies van der Rohe Archive, gift of the architect
Object number
1005.1965
Copyright
© 2015 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn
Department
Architecture and Design

This design for a crystal tower, conceived by the German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, was unprecedented in 1921. It was based on the untried idea that a supporting steel skeleton would be able to free the exterior walls from their load-bearing function, allowing a building to have a surface more translucent than solid. A number of American skyscrapers had featured expanses of glass, but Mies was the first to imagine such a building without a structural or decorative frame of masonry. Indeed Mies seems to have been inspired by photographs of American skyscrapers when they were still under construction, a stage that he felt revealed "the bold constructive thoughts, and then the impression of the high-reaching steel skeletons is overpowering."

Mies developed his radical proposal in response to a call for German architects to design Berlin's first skyscraper, intended for a triangular site bounded by the Spree River, the busy shopping street Friedrichstrasse, and the train station of the same name. The competition drew 140 entries as well as intense interest from architects, artists, and the general public, generating debate about the future of the city and representing hopes for new beginnings after Germany's defeat in World War I. While Mies's bold image of an entirely steel-and-glass skyscraper had a solid scientific and technological basis, his crystal-shaped plan reflected the more fantastic visions of Expressionist architects and artists, who were drawn to glass as a symbol of purity and renewal.

This very large drawing was repeatedly reproduced in publications around the world, achieving iconic status. In 1964, the architect, who had left it behind when he emigrated to the United States in 1938, was able to retrieve it from what was then East Germany, and it has been exhibited frequently at The Museum of Modern Art since then. Its bold image and masterful draftsmanship continue to inspire.

Publication excerpt from Matilda McQuaid, ed., Envisioning Architecture: Drawings from The Museum of Modern Art, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2002, p. 50

Additional text

This design for a crystal tower was unprecedented in 1921. It was based on the untried idea that a supporting steel skeleton would be able to free the exterior walls from their load-bearing function, allowing a building to have a surface that is more translucent than solid. Mies van der Rohe determined the faceted, prismatic shapes of its three connecting towers by experimenting with light reflections on a glass model. While the design anticipates his later preference for steel and glass, here a highly expressionistic character is more evident than any kind of rationalist intention.

A leader of the revolutionary modern movement in architecture, Mies van der Rohe designed a series of five startlingly innovative projects in the early 1920s, each of which had a profound influence on progressive architects all over the world. This competition entry was one of them. Code-named "Honeycomb," the Friedrichstrasse Skyscraper was distinguished by its daring use of glass, which symbolized the dawning of a new culture, and by an expressive shape that seems to owe nothing to history.

Publication excerpt from The Museum of Modern Art, MoMA Highlights, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, revised 2004, originally published 1999, p. 121

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Image permissions

In order to effectively service requests for images, The Museum of Modern Art entrusts the licensing of images of works of art in its collections to the agencies Scala Archives and Art Resource. As MoMA’s representatives, these agencies supply high-resolution digital image files provided to them directly by the Museum's imaging studios.

All requests to reproduce works of art from MoMA's collection within North America (Canada, U.S., Mexico) should be addressed directly to Art Resource at 536 Broadway, New York, New York 10012. Telephone (212) 505-8700; fax (212) 505-2053; requests@artres.com; artres.com. Requests from all other geographical locations should be addressed directly to Scala Group S.p.A., 62, via Chiantigiana, 50012 Bagno a Ripoli/Firenze, Italy. Telephone 39 055 6233 200; fax 39 055 641124; firenze@scalarchives.com; scalarchives.com.

Requests for permission to reprint text from MoMA publications should be addressed to text_permissions@moma.org.

Related links:
Outside North America: Scala Archives
North America: Art Resource