Front / Recto

  • Title The Crowd
  • Negative Date 1910
  • Print Date 1910
  • Medium Oil pigment print
  • Dimensions Image 6 1/4 × 8 13/16" (15.9 × 22.4 cm)
    Mount 7 3/8 × 9 5/8" (18.7 × 24.5 cm)
  • Place Taken Paris
  • Credit Line Thomas Walther Collection. Gift of Thomas Walther
  • MoMA Accession Number 445.2004

Back / Verso

  • Mount Type Mount (original)
  • Marks and Inscriptions Signed on the negative, appears on sheet recto, bottom left: RD [or BD]. White label affixed to mount verso, top left, with text printed in black ink: Robert Demachy/The Crowd/1910, oil pigment print/initialed recto,/(RDY02 01)/$35000. Inscribed in pencil on bottom right of label: 5/02. Inscribed in pencil on mount verso, bottom right: RDY02 01.
  • Provenance The artist. Robert Koch Gallery, San Francisco [1]; purchased by Thomas Walther; given to The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2004.
    [1] Gallery label on mount verso.

Surface

  • Retouch Detail
    Detail showing etching. The area of detail is 7 x 11 mm. Department of Conservation, MoMA
    Detail showing pencil retouching, possibly graphite, and etching. The area of detail is 14 x 22 mm. Department of Conservation, MoMA
  • Surface Sheen Matte
  • Techniques Retouching (additive)
    Contact print
    Retouching (reductive)
  • Micro-raking
    Raking-light close-up image, as shot. Area of detail is 6.7 x 6.7 mm. Department of Conservation, MoMA
    Raking-light close-up image, processed. Processing included removal of color, equalization of the histogram, and sharpening, all designed to enhance visual comparison. Department of Conservation, MoMA

Paper Material

  • Format Unknown
  • UV Fluorescence Recto no data
    Verso no data
  • Fiber Analysis No fiber data available
  • Material Techniques Pigment print
  • XRF

    This work was determined to be an oil pigment (chromium-based) print via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry.

    The following elements have been positively identified in the work, through XRF readings taken from its recto and verso (or from the mount, where the verso was not accessible):

    • Recto: Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba, Pb
    • Mount: Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Pb

    The graphs below show XRF spectra for three areas on the print: two of the recto—from areas of maximum and minimum image density (Dmax and Dmin)—and one of the verso or mount. The background spectrum represents the contribution of the XRF instrument itself. The first graph shows elements identified through the presence of their characteristic peaks in the lower energy range (0 to 8 keV). The second graph shows elements identified through the presence of their characteristic peaks in the higher energy range (8 to 40 keV).

    Areas examined: Recto (Dmax: black; Dmin: green), Verso or Mount (blue), Background (red)
    Elements identified: Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ba
    Areas examined: Recto (Dmax: black; Dmin: green), Verso or Mount (blue), Background (red)
    Elements identified: Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Pb

In Context

Related Images

Robert Demachy. The Crowd. Reproduced in William D. MacColl. “International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography at Buffalo.” International Studio 43, no. 169 (March 1911).

Historical Publications

  • MacColl, William D. “International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography at Buffalo.” International Studio 43, no. 169 (March 1911): xvi (as The Crowd).

Historical Exhibitions

  • Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, N.Y. International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography (as The Crowd). November 3–December 5, 1911.

Related People

Related Links

For best results, please enable JavaScript.