<h1 class="page">COUNTER SPACE: VISIONS OF PLENTY</h1> <div id="main" class="visions_of_plenty"> <div id="header"> Counter Space: Design and the Modern Kitchen </div> <div id="cs_nav" class="visions_of_plenty"> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space" class="introduction">Introduction</a> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/the_new_kitchen" class="the_new_kitchen">The New Kitchen</a> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/the_frankfurt_kitchen" class="the_frankfurt_kitchen">The Frankfurt Kitchen</a> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/visions_of_plenty" class="visions_of_plenty">Visions of Plenty</a> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/kitchen_sink_dramas" class="kitchen_sink_dramas">Kitchen Sink Dramas</a> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/blog" class="blog">Blog</a> <br class="clear" /> </div> <div id="content"> <h1 class="double">Visions of <br />Plenty</h1> <p id="cs_quote"> In the ’30s and ’40s it was fashionable to compress the kitchen into a spacesaving, antiseptic cubicle&hellip; Since the war, whole houses are virtually being designed around colorful, labor-saving kitchens that can also serve as all-purpose living space for the family.<br /> <span class="cs_quotee">&ndash; “Kitchen Comeback,” <i>Time</i> magazine, 1954</span> </p> <p><a href="#highlights"><img src="/images/counter_space/images/3_VOP_header.jpg" width="585" height="120"/></a></p> <p> “America represents the fat kitchen, and Europe a very lean kitchen indeed.” This was how German émigré Heinrich Hauser, writing in 1945, described his perception of a “spiritual chasm” opening up between the two. While rationing and postwar reconstruction maintained a hold on Europe, the United States’ economy experienced a significant boom, and rapidly came to dominate the world market in consumer goods. Building on wartime research into new materials, technologies, and ergonomics, large companies such as General Electric, Westinghouse, Hotpoint, and Rubbermaid shaped powerful corporate identities, reinforced by the new form of television advertisements.<br /> <br /> A climate of abundance and an emphasis on consumer choice, embraced during the Cold War as hallmarks of capitalism and democracy, put a new spin on the now well-established rhetoric of efficiency and anti-drudgery in design for the kitchen. Members of “the affluent society” (as economist John Kenneth Galbraith referred to them at the time) could acquire for their kitchens—increasingly suburban and spacious—an ever-expanding range of products, available from the mid-1950s in new shopping malls.<br /> <br /> Due in part to American aid administered through the Marshall Plan, design powers soon reemerged in Europe. In Germany, Braun developed a cohesive family of appliances revered internationally for their superior functionality and pure form. Italy became a hotbed of innovative design in plastics, and in the 1960s designers like Virgilio Forchiassin reimagined the kitchen in mobile and miniaturized forms.<br /> <br /> By the 1970s alternative design pushed beyond new materials and forms to consider social and environmental concerns. In Sweden, companies like Ergonomi Design shaped kitchen tools for the elderly and people with disabilities. And dedicated designers like Adnan Tarcici supported sustainable energy with impressively simple solar cookers. Contemporary designers continue to creatively address the enormous range of materials, functions, possibilities, and problems that reside in the modern kitchen. </p> <h2>highlights</h2> <div class="gallery JS_BlogGallery JS_CounterSpaceBlogGallery" id="gallery8254"> <script type="text/javascript">var gallery8254 = {"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/counter-space\/visions-of-plenty\/","images":[{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.1.jpg","width":439,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Health Chair<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1938\–40<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">The Ironrite Ironer Co.<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">USA, established 1911<\/span><span class=\"object\">Health Chair<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1938\–40<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Steel and lacquered plywood<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by The Ironrite Ironer Co., Detroit<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the manufacturer<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"In 1911 the Ironrite Ironer Company began manufacturing electric ironing machines and marketing them to American housewives as the modern antidote to the drudgery of hand-ironing. In the late 1930s it launched the Health Chair, which facilitated \“a scientifically correct ironing posture,\” to complement its machines. World War II delayed mass production of the chair but stimulated the development of a newly scientific and systematic analysis of the interface between the human body and the designed environment. When production resumed, the benefits of the Health Chair were advocated by Ironrite instructors, who provided free demonstrations at \“ironing schools\” as well as in private home lessons."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.2.jpg","width":297,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Cleaver and Cleaverette (model 71)<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1944\–47<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Charles D. Briddell <\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">American<\/span><span class=\"object\">Cleaver and Cleaverette (model 71)<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1944\–47<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Plated steel and plastic<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Chas. D. Briddell Inc., Crisfield, Maryland<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the manufacturer, 1948<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.31.jpg","width":585,"height":175,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Nesting Refrigerator Bowls<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1945<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Earl S. Tupper<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">American, 1907-1983<\/span><span class=\"object\">Nesting Refrigerator Bowls<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1945<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Polyethylene<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Tupper Corporation, Farnumsville, Massachusetts <\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the Education Department, 1954<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"In 1947 Earl Tupper, an inventor and chemist at DuPont, designed the unique air- and watertight Tupper Seal for food containers that prevented both spilling and spoilage. He then applied this enhancement to his polyethylene range of Welcome Ware, which he had developed years earlier. The result\—Tupperware\—became a powerful symbol of suburban domestic life in the 1950s. In addition to its cutting-edge material and form, Tupperware\’s innovative marketing secured its success. Brownie Wise, a single mother who ultimately became vice president of the company, devised the hostess-party model, in which housewives could sell Tupperware to earn money independently."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.4.jpg","width":512,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Salad Basket<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1946<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">M. Schimmel<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\"><\/span><span class=\"object\">Salad Basket<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1946<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Metal wire<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Raymar Industries Inc., New York<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Purchase, 1948<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.5.jpg","width":380,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Water Kettle<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1949<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Peter Schlumbohm<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">American, born Germany. 1896\–1962<\/span><span class=\"object\">Water Kettle<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1949<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Borosilicate glass (Pyrex) and cork<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Chemex Corp., New York, NY<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the manufacturer, 1955-2001<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"The unified series of kitchenwares by chemist and inventor Schlumbohm epitomizes the kitchen-as-laboratory concept\—a hallmark of the interwar New Kitchen\—as it continued beyond World War II. After immigrating to the United States from Germany in 1935, Schlumbohm created the famous Chemex coffeemaker, inspired in spirit by the Bauhaus school of design and in form by laboratory equipment such as the Erlenmeyer flask. A feature of James Bond\’s breakfast in From Russia with Love, it was the most successful design of the more than 3,000 he patented."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.6.jpg","width":585,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Double-Chamber Flow-Thru Tea Bags<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1949<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Adolf Rambold<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">German, 1900\–1996<\/span><span class=\"object\">Double-Chamber Flow-Thru Tea Bags<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1949<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Paper<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Teepack Spezialmaschinen GmbH & Co. KG<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the manufacturer, 2005<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.71.jpg","width":585,"height":299,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Twelve-Cut Pie Marker<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1950s<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Unknown designer<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\"><\/span><span class=\"object\">Twelve-Cut Pie Marker<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1950s<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Cast aluminum<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured in Italy<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Department purchase, 1956<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.8.jpg","width":330,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Gesund und Gut mit Butter <br>(Healthy and good with butter)<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1951<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Donald Brun<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">Swiss, 1909-1999<\/span><span class=\"object\">Gesund und Gut mit Butter (Healthy and good with butter)<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1951<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Lithograph<\/span><span class=\"production\">Printer: Frobenius AG, Basel, Switzerland<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Purchase and partial gift of Leslie J. Schrayer <\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.9.jpg","width":373,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Kitchen Clock<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1956\–57<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Max Bill<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">Swiss, 1908\–1994<\/span><span class=\"object\">Kitchen Clock<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1956\–57<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Ceramic, metal and glass<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Gebr\üder Junghans AG, Schramberg, Germany<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Purchase, 2010<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"This kitchen clock with timer embodies longstanding hallmarks of the modern kitchen: timekeeping and efficiency. Its distilled functionalism is characteristic of Bill, the architect-designer best known as the cofounder of the Hochschule f\ür Gestaltung in Ulm, Germany, considered the most influential school of design after the Bauhaus (which Bill attended). This clock was one of the earliest of Bill\’s designs to be produced and is considered a classic example of postwar \“good design\” in everyday objects. Bill later summarized his pragmatic design philosophy: \“Functional design considers the visual aspect, that is, the beauty, of an object as a component of its function, but not one that overwhelms its other primary functions.\""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.10.jpg","width":373,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Kitchen Pail<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1957<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Gino Colombini<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">Italian, born 1915)<\/span><span class=\"object\">Kitchen Pail<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1957<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Plastic<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Kartell SpA, Milan<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the manufacturer, 1958<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"Around the same time that Tupperware was gaining popularity in the United States, the Milan-based plastics manufacturer Kartell was establishing itself as a European leader in this increasingly important modern material. Colombini, who headed Kartell\’s technical department from its founding in 1949, was awarded Compasso d\’Oro prizes (Italy\’s top honor for good design) in 1955, 1957, 1959, and 1960. His household objects, including this kitchen pail, took advantage of the aesthetic possibilities of plastic, in addition to being both economical and durable."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.11.jpg","width":565,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Casserole<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1959<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Timo Sarpaneva<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">Finnish, 1926\–2006)<\/span><span class=\"object\">Casserole<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1959<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Cast iron and teak<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by W. Rosenlew and Co., Finland<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the designer, 1990<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"Sarpaneva\’s cast-iron casserole has become an iconic work of organic design. It is one of several objects that represent his interest in multipurpose kitchenwares that could be used in the oven, on the stovetop, and at the table (sometimes also in the refrigerator). The teak handle allows one-handed transportation and, when removed, inserts into the lid for opening. Along with contemporaries such as Kaj Franck and Tappio Wirkkala, Sarpaneva achieved international fame as postwar Finnish design grew in popularity due to its clean and warm modern forms, often inspired by nature as well as traditional decorative arts."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.121.jpg","width":585,"height":381,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Brochures for Alcan Foil<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1960\–62<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Rolf Harder<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">German, born 1929<\/span><span class=\"object\">Brochures for Alcan Foil<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1960\–62<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Lithograph<\/span><span class=\"production\"><\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the designer, 2007<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.13.jpg","width":396,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Serving Bowl<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1963<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Kenneth Brozen<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">American, 1927\–1989<\/span><span class=\"object\">Serving Bowl<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1963<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Acrylic with aluminum handles<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Robinson, Lewis and Rubin Inc., Brooklyn<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the designer, 2001<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.141.jpg","width":585,"height":425,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Still Life #30<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">April 1963<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Tom Wesselmann<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">American, 1931\–2004<\/span><span class=\"object\">Still Life #30<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">April 1963<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Oil, enamel, and synthetic polymer paint on composition board with collage of printed advertisements, plastic flowers, refrigerator door, plastic replicas of 7-Up bottles, glazed and framed color reproduction, and stamped metal<\/span><span class=\"production\"><\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of Philip Johnson, 1970<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.15.jpg","width":469,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">mono 10+1 Kitchen Tool Set<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1965<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Peter Raacke<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">German, born 1928)<\/span><span class=\"object\">mono 10+1 Kitchen Tool Set<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1965<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Stainless steel<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Hessische Metallwerke (now Seibel Designpartner GmbH), Germany<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of Bonniers Inc., 1967<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"This set of kitchen utensils belongs to the clean-lined, stainless steel \“mono\” series for which Raacke is best known. The series began in the late 1950s with mono-a (for alpha), which was followed by numerous iterations into the early 1980s, including mono petit for children. Raacke, who trained in gold- and silversmithing, also designed cardboard furniture and a diesel locomotive. He cofounded the Association of German Industrial Designers (VDID) in 1959 and taught for more than thirty years at major German universities. Along with Max Bill, he is associated with the reemergence of \“good design\” in Europe after World War II."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.161.jpg","width":585,"height":405,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Spazio Vivo (Living Space) Mobile kitchen unit<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1968<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Virgilio Forchiassin<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">Italian<\/span><span class=\"object\">Spazio Vivo (Living Space) Mobile kitchen unit<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1968<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Steel, plastic laminate, and plywood<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Snaidero, Italy<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the manufacturer, 1972<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"This hinged, mobile kitchen on castors incorporates a stove, small refrigerator, pull-out cutting board, and a surprising abundance of storage space. It was shown in MoMA\’s landmark 1972 exhibition Italy: The New Domestic Landscape, which celebrated innovative, flexible designs responsive to new ideas about casual and adaptable living. In considering this dynamic, compact unit, Time magazine noted its cultural significance: \“In a country like Italy, where the kitchen is still a kind of sacred cave presided over by a mother-goddess, the design of a cooking module that can be rolled about and plugged in anywhere has profound implications. Not, perhaps, the immediate death of the nuclear family\—but certainly a substantive critique of it.\”"},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.17.jpg","width":476,"height":475,"caption":" <div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Kitchen Scale (model BA 2000)<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1969<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Marco Zanuso<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">Italian, 1916\–2001<\/span><span class=\"object\">Kitchen Scale (model BA 2000)<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1969<\/span><span class=\"materials\">ABS polymer casing<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Terraillon SLR, Italy<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the manufacturer, 1970<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"This kitchen scale which demonstrates the utility and sophistication of light-weight and easy-to-clean plastics for kitchen devices, was featured alongside a kitchen timer and knife sharpener also by Marco Zanuso and Richard Sapper in MoMA\’s 1972 exhibition <i>Italy: The New Domestic Landscape<\/i>. Zanuso and Sapper collaborated from 1958 to 1977, exploring new technologies and materials developed during and following World War II\—colorful plastics in particular. Zanuso trained as an architect at the Politecnico in Milan, while Sapper studied philosophy, graphic design, and mechanical engineering in Munich. Both individually and together they worked with major companies such as IBM, Olivetti, Brionvega, and Necchi to develop award-winning televisions, telephones, and furniture as well as simple yet stylish smaller objects like this."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.181.jpg","width":585,"height":440,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Kitchen Knife and Cutting Board<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1973<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Ergonomi Design Gruppen<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">Sweden, established 1969<\/span> <span class=\"maker\">Maria Benktzon<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">Swedish, born 1946<\/span><span class=\"maker\">Sven-Eric Juhlin<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">Swedish, born 1940<\/span><span class=\"object\">Kitchen Knife and Cutting Board<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1973<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Stainless steel and polypropylene (knife) and plastic (cutting board)<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by AB Gustavsberg, Sweden<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of RFSU Rehab, 1983<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"While designers often reimagine the standard forms of kitchen tools for aesthetic reasons or to utilize new materials, this work demonstrates ergonomic changes intended to make familiar objects more accessible. It was featured in MoMA\’s 1988 exhibition Design for Independent Living, which highlighted the efforts of designers to meet the needs of the elderly and people with physical disabilities. Since 1969 Ergonomi Design has specialized in this area, reflecting through its award-winning products and its motto \“Innovation for People\” an outstanding commitment to diverse user needs. Their work from the 1970s and \’80s, much of which is still in production today, represents the progressive \“democratic\” design that has long been associated with the historically equality-driven culture of Sweden."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.19.jpg","width":554,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Plastic Hamburger<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1975 <\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\"><\/span><span class=\"maker_details\"><\/span><span class=\"object\">Plastic Hamburger<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1975 <\/span><span class=\"materials\">Plastic<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured in Kappabashi, Tokyo<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Greta Daniel Fund and Yale University Fund, 1977<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"In Japan, plastic food designed and manufactured for restaurant display, or shokuhin sanpuru, is a major national industry. Models of Japanese and Western foods are molded and painted in exquisite detail to look as good as\—if not better than\—their edible counterparts. Displayed in a restaurant\’s front window, these durable replicas allow the customer to identify food names and prices and facilitate interlingual communication. The Japanese practice of creating replica food (in wax before modern plas- tics) dates back to around 1920 and was reportedly inspired by the lifelike anatomical teaching models then being imported from the United States by new medical schools. The industry boomed after 1960, when restaurants began offering more varied menus. The realistic models are also commonly used as stand-ins for commercials, and are even sold to tourists as souvenirs."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.20.jpg","width":522,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Solnar Tarcici Collapsible Solar Cooker<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1970<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Dr. Adnan Tarcici<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">Yemenite, born Lebanon 1918<\/span><span class=\"object\">Solnar Tarcici Collapsible Solar Cooker<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1970<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Aluminum<\/span><span class=\"production\"><\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the designer, 1974<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"This solar cooker, which collapses completely into the portable box that also serves as its spine, was designed by professor and United Nations delegate Adnan Tarcini. Tarcini dedicated himself to solar energy: \“One-third of a worker\’s salary,\” he said in Lebanon in 1955, \“is spent for fuel\… while from eight to nine months a year the sun shines all day.\” Beginning in the 1950s, he achieved numerous patents for different solar cooker designs. Various attempts to harness the sun\’s power for cooking had been made in the late nineteenth century, and in 1955 the Association for Applied Solar Energy (later the International Solar Energy Society) was formed. In 1956 a New York Times article featured Tarcini, who was pictured cooking hot dogs with one of his own devices."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.211.jpg","width":585,"height":384,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Good Grips Peeler<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1989<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Smart Design New York<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">USA, established 1979<\/span><span class=\"object\">Good Grips Peeler<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1989<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Stainless steel and synthetic rubber<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Oxo International, New York<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the designers, 1994<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/2.221.jpg","width":585,"height":326,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Ceci N\’est Pas Une Truelle Cake Server<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1996<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Philippe Starck<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">French, born 1949)<\/span><span class=\"object\">Ceci N\’est Pas Une Truelle Cake Server<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1996<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Stainless steel and maple<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Alessi, Crusinallo, Italy<\/span><span class=\"credits\">David Whitney Collection. Gift of David Whitney, 2000<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"Starck has produced many designs, often for the kitchen, that are unexpected or subversive. He has collaborated with Alessi since 1986. CEO Alberto Alessi describes the so-called designer terrible: \“He is a living example of my dream: A true work of design must move people, convey feelings, bring back memories, surprise, transgress.\”"}]};</script> <noscript> <div class="wp-caption"> <img src="http://www.moma.org/explore/inside_out/inside_out/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/2.1.jpg" width="439" height="475" alt="<div class="caption_short"><span class="object">Health Chair</span><span class="object_date">1938–40</span> <a href="#" class="open">+</a></div> <div class="caption_long"> <span class="maker">The Ironrite Ironer Co.</span><span class="maker_details">USA, established 1911</span><span class="object">Health Chair</span><span class="object_date">1938–40</span><span class="materials">Steel and lacquered plywood</span><span class="production">Manufactured by The Ironrite Ironer Co., Detroit</span><span class="credits">Gift of the manufacturer</span><span class="imagerights"></span><a href="#" class="close">-</a></div>" /> <p class="wp-caption-text"><div class="caption_short"><span class="object">Health Chair</span><span class="object_date">1938–40</span> <a href="#" class="open">+</a></div> <div class="caption_long"> <span class="maker">The Ironrite Ironer Co.</span><span class="maker_details">USA, established 1911</span><span class="object">Health Chair</span><span class="object_date">1938–40</span><span class="materials">Steel and lacquered plywood</span><span class="production">Manufactured by The Ironrite Ironer Co., Detroit</span><span class="credits">Gift of the manufacturer</span><span class="imagerights"></span><a href="#" class="close">-</a></div></p> </div> </noscript> </div> <h2>videos</h2> <div id="videos"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td><a href="#video1" rel="videobox"><img src="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_small/45716.png" width="190" /></a><br /><a href="#video1" rel="videobox">Plastics <span class="date">1944</span></a><br /> <span class="materials">Black and white, sound<br />4:42 min.<br /> Produced by Young America Films</span></td> <td><a href="#video5" rel="videobox"><img src="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_small/45968.png" width="190" /></a><br /><a href="#video5" rel="videobox">Making a New Day out of Tuesday <span class="date">1946</span></a><br /> <span class="materials">Color, sound<br />5:00 min.<br /> Presented by Ironrite Ironer Co.</span> </td> <td><a href="#video6" rel="videobox"><img src="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_small/45996.png" width="190" /></a><br /><a href="#video6" rel="videobox">Step-Saving Kitchen <span class="date">1949</span></a><br /> <span class="materials">Color, sound<br />13:11 min.<br /> Produced by the U.S. Department of Agriculture</span> </td> </tr> </tr> <td><a href="#video8" rel="videobox"><img src="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_small/46010.png" width="190" /></a><br /><a href="#video8" rel="videobox">Tupperware Commercials<span class="date">1950s</span></a><br /> <span class="materials">Color, sound<br />2:00 min.<br /> Produced by Tupperware</span> </td> <td><a href="#video4" rel="videobox"><img src="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_small/45758.png" width="190" /></a><br /><a href="#video4" rel="videobox">Last Word in Automatic Dishwashing <span class="date">1950</span></a><br /> <span class="materials">Black and white, sound<br />6:57 min.<br /> Produced by Jam Handy Organization</span></td> <td><a href="#video9" rel="videobox"><img src="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_small/46024.png" width="190" /></a><br /><a href="#video9" rel="videobox">G.E. Refrigerator Commercial <span class="date">1952</span></a><br /> <span class="materials">Color, sound<br />1:08 min.<br /> Produced by General Electric Co.</span> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><a href="#video10" rel="videobox"><img src="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_small/45884.png" width="190" /></a><br /><a href="#video10" rel="videobox">A Word to the Wives <span class="date">c. 1955</span></a><br /> <span class="materials">Color, sound<br />12:41 min.<br /> Produced by Telamerica, Inc.</span> </td> </td> <td><a href="#video12" rel="videobox"><img src="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_small/45926.png" width="190" /></a><br /><a href="#video12" rel="videobox">Preparation of Food from Stone Age to Space Age <span class="date">1970</span></a><br /> <span class="materials">Color, sound<br />10:10 min.<br /> Produced by Litton Industries</span> </td> <td><a href="#video3" rel="videobox"><img src="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_small/45744.png" width="190" /></a><br /><a href="#video3" rel="videobox">Frigidaire Imperial Line <span class="date">1956</span></a><br /> <span class="materials">Color, sound<br />10:05 min.<br /> Produced by Jam Handy Organization</span></td> </tr> <tr> <td><a href="#video2" rel="videobox"><img src="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_small/45730.png" width="190" /></a><br /><a href="#video2" rel="videobox">Frigidaire Finale <span class="date">1957</span></a><br /> <span class="materials">Color, sound<br />3:35 min.<br /> Produced by Jam Handy Organization</span></td> <td><a href="#video11" rel="videobox"><img src="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_small/45954.png" width="190" /></a><br /><a href="#video11" rel="videobox">Design for Dreaming <span class="date">1956</span></a><br /> <span class="materials">Color, sound<br />9:16 min.<br /> Produced by MPO Productions</span> </td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div id="video1" class="hidden"> <a href="http://moma.org/video_file/video_file/681/08_Plastics_and_Tupperware.flv" class="asset">Plastics</a><br /> <a href="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_normal/45716.png" class="image">Plastics</a> </div> <div id="video2" class="hidden"> <a href="http://moma.org/video_file/video_file/682/09_Frigidaire-Finale.flv" class="asset">Frigidaire Finale</a><br /> <a href="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_normal/45730.png" class="image">Frigidaire Finale</a> </div> <div id="video3" class="hidden"> <a href="http://moma.org/video_file/video_file/683/09_Frigidaire-Finale1.flv" class="asset">Frigidaire Imperial Line</a><br /> <a href="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_normal/45744.png" class="image">Frigidaire Imperial Line</a> </div> <div id="video4" class="hidden"> <a href="http://www.moma.org/video_file/video_file/684/09_Frigidaire-Finale2.flv" class="asset">Last Word in Automatic Dishwashing</a><br /> <a href="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_normal/45758.png" class="image">Last Word in Automatic Dishwashing</a></p> <p class="subtitle"> </div> <div id="video5" class="hidden"> <a href="http://moma.org/video_file/video_file/716/03_MakingaN1946.flv" class="asset">Making a New Day out of Tuesday</a><br /> <a href="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_normal/45884.png" class="image">Making a New Day out of Tuesday</a> </div> <div id="video6" class="hidden"> <a href="http://moma.org/video_file/video_file/718/07_01_StepSavi1949.flv" class="asset">Step-Saving Kitchen</a><br /> <a href="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_normal/45996.png" class="image">Step-Saving Kitchen</a> </div> <div id="video8" class="hidden"> <a href="http://moma.org/video_file/video_file/719/06_03_tupperware_2.flv" class="asset">Tupperware Commercials</a><br /> <a href="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_normal/46010.png" class="image">Tupperware Commercials</a> </div> <div id="video9" class="hidden"> <a href="http://moma.org/video_file/video_file/720/05_01_GE_Commercial.flv" class="asset">G.E. Refrigerator Commercial</a><br /> <a href="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_normal/46024.png" class="image">G.E. Refrigerator Commercial</a> </div> <div id="video10" class="hidden"> <a href="http://moma.org/video_file/video_file/711/10_AWordtoWives_copy.flv" class="asset">A Word to the Wives</a><br /> <a href="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_normal/45884.png" class="image">A Word to the Wives</a> </div> <div id="video11" class="hidden"> <a href="http://moma.org/video_file/video_file/713/03_05_Designfo1956.flv" class="asset">Design for Dreaming</a><br /> <a href="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_normal/45954.png" class="image">Design for Dreaming</a> </div> <div id="video12" class="hidden"> <a href="http://moma.org/video_file/video_file/715/01_01_preparation_of_foods.flv" class="asset">Preparation of Food from Stone Age to Space Age</a><br /> <a href="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_normal/45926.png" class="image">Preparation of Food from Stone Age to Space Ageg</a> </div> <p>These public domain films are provided by <a href="http://www.archive.org" target="_blank">.archive.org</a>.</p> </div> <div id="sidebar"> <div id="recentblogs"> <h3>recent blog posts</h3> <ul> <li> <small>April 28, 2011</small> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/blog/hidden-kitchens">Hidden Kitchens</a> </li> <li> <small>March 2, 2011</small> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/blog/home-is-where-the-art-is">Home Is Where the Art Is</a> </li> <li> <small>February 21, 2011</small> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/blog/today-a-live-streaming-walkthrough-of-the-counter-space-exhibition">Today: A Live-Streaming Walkthrough of the <i>Counter Space</i> Exhibition</a> </li> <li> <small>February 15, 2011</small> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/blog/eat-drink-read-moma">Eat, Drink, (Read!) MoMA</a> </li> <li> <small>December 23, 2010</small> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/blog/kitchen-culture-in-motion">Kitchen Culture, In Motion</a> </li> </ul> </div> <div id="collection"><a href="http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?SHR&tag=CounterSpace">view selected works<br>in the online collection</a></div> <div id="links"> <ul> <li><a href="http://store.moma.org/museum/moma/ProductDisplay_Counter%20Space:%20Design%20and%20the%20Modern%20Kitchen%20%2528HC%2529_10451_10001_105946_-1_26683_11492_105961?cm_mmc=MoMA-_-Other-_-Subsites-_-Counter+Space">publication</a></li> <li> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/resources">resources</a></li> <li> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/credits">credits</a></li> <li><a href="http://moma.org/wp/inside_out/category/exhibitions/current/counter-space/feed/">rss</a></li> </div> <div id="events"> <h3>related events</h3> <div class="JS_Widget"> <a href="/widgets/calendar/counter_space/list/10000" rel=""></a> </div> </div> <div style="clear:both;"></div> </div> <br class="clear" /> </div>