<h1 class="page">COUNTER SPACE: THE NEW KITCHEN</h1> <div id="main" class="the_new_kitchen"> <div id="header"> Counter Space: Design and the Modern Kitchen </div> <div id="cs_nav" class="the_new_kitchen"> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space" class="introduction">Introduction</a> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/the_new_kitchen" class="the_new_kitchen">The New Kitchen</a> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/the_frankfurt_kitchen" class="the_frankfurt_kitchen">The Frankfurt Kitchen</a> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/visions_of_plenty" class="visions_of_plenty">Visions of Plenty</a> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/kitchen_sink_dramas" class="kitchen_sink_dramas">Kitchen Sink Dramas</a> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/blog" class="blog">Blog</a> <br class="clear" /> </div> <div id="content"> <h1 class="double">The New <br />Kitchen</h1> <p id="cs_quote">The modern kitchen has become a model workshop, a chemical laboratory&hellip; It is the best designed and most rationalized room of the modern house.<br /> <span class="cs_quotee">&ndash; Karel Teige, <i>The Minimum Dwelling</i>, 1932</span> </p> <p><a href="#highlights"><img src="/images/counter_space/images/1_TNK_header.jpg" width="585" height="120"/></a></p> <p> Following World War I, kitchens, long ignored by design professionals, began to attract unprecedented attention from domestic reformers, progressive architects, manufacturers, and utility suppliers, all intent on transforming spaces that were previously drab, unsanitary, and hidden from view.<br /> <br /> The “New Kitchen,” epitomized by Margarete (Grete) Schütte-Lihotzky’s Frankfurt Kitchen of 1926–27, was rationally planned and industrially produced for popular consumption. Simplified house plans and the innovative use of prefabricated construction, combined with a desire to vanquish drudgery and optimize efficiency, resulted in compact, practical spaces that were central to the functioning of the modern home.<br /> <br /> Between the two world wars, the New Kitchen was significantly shaped by research into new materials and technologies. Aluminum and heat-resistant glass allowed the development of exciting new products, and the increased availability of electricity and gas revolutionized appliance design. Large companies, especially in the United States, established modern test kitchens, employing professional home economists to collaborate with industrial designers on innovative products for expanding markets.<br /> <br /> From Moscow and Prague to Brussels and Berlin, kitchens were at the core of radical projects to modernize housing and renew cities in keeping with the spirit of a new age. Whether conceived as a galley for food preparation or a collective facility outside the home, variants of the New Kitchen shared an admiration for scientific reason and utopian aspirations for a more egalitarian society. By transforming daily life at the level of the kitchen, it was argued, behavioral change and improved social well being would follow. During the Great Depression similar concerns informed Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal promotion of modern kitchens in the United States. As heightened tensions developed into World War II, the New Kitchen’s emphasis on economic use of resources, hygiene, and health was crucial to the home front on both sides of the conflict. </p> <h2 id="highlights">highlights</h2> <div class="gallery JS_BlogGallery JS_CounterSpaceBlogGallery" id="gallery8250"> <script type="text/javascript">var gallery8250 = {"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/counter-space\/the-new-kitchen\/","images":[{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.1.jpg","width":445,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Electric Kettle<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1909<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Peter Behrens<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">German, 1868\–1940<\/span><span class=\"object\">Electric Kettle<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1909<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Nickel-plated brass and rattan<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Allgemeine Elektrizit\äts Gesellschaft, Frankfurt a. M.<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of Manfred Ludewig, 1992<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"The first electric kettle appeared in the 1890s, but the potentially hazardous proximity of water and electricity and the lack of effective electricity distribution networks delayed its widespread acceptance. Though it was competitively priced for domestic and export markets, AEG\’s kettle was still more expensive, smaller, and slower to heat the water than a conventional kettle on a gas or wood burner. This comparative inadequacy was overshadowed, however, by effective branding, high-quality materials and construction, and modern styling, which was developed by Germany\’s foremost industrial designer to fit in with both living rooms and kitchens."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.2.jpg","width":469,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Kitchen Storage Pot<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1923<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Theodor Bogler<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">German, 1897\–1968<\/span><span class=\"object\">Kitchen Storage Pot<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1923<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Earthenware with metallic glaze<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Bauhaus Ceramic Workshops, Dornburg, Weimar<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Est\ée and Joseph Lauder Design Fund, 1970<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"This storage pot was slip-cast from a plaster mold, a method used for mass-producing ceramics. Designed by Bogler in the ceramics workshops of the Bauhaus, the robust, simple form reflected the school\’s conviction that basic geometric shapes were well suited to industrial production. Given the depressed state of the economy and the uneven quality of the prototypes, however, the pots were never licensed for large-scale manufacture, despite initial interest at trade fairs in both Frankfurt and Leipzig."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.3.jpg","width":514,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Wohnung und St\ädtebau (Home building and<br> town planning)<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1928\–30<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\"><span class=\"normal\">Attributed to <\/span>Gerd Arntz<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">German, 1900\–1988<\/span><span class=\"object\">Wohnung und St\ädtebau (Home building and town planning)<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1928\–30<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Poster for a permanent exhibition at the Museum of Society and Business, Vienna<\/span><span class=\"production\">Printer: M\ünster & Co., Vienna<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Jan Tschichold Collection. Gift of Philip Johnson, 1999<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"The split view on this exhibition poster shows the importance attached to the kitchen in the design of affordable modern housing. The devastation and extreme deprivation in Vienna that followed World War I radicalized many architects and designers, inspiring them to engage with class politics and, on a more practical level, to confront the city\’s chronic housing shortage. One of the initiatives in which architect Grete Sch\ütte-Lihotzky became involved while in Vienna was the Gesellschafts- und Wirtschaftsmuseum (Society and Economy Museum), an organization established in 1924 to foster awareness of the relationship between design, the urban environment, and social well-being using informational graphics like this poster."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.4.jpg","width":563,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Tea Cart (model B54)<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1928<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Marcel Breuer<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">American, born Hungary. 1902\–1981<\/span><span class=\"object\">Tea Cart (model B54)<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1928<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Bent nickel-plated tubular steel, wood, and linoleum<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Gebr\üder Thonet, Vienna<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Est\ée and Joseph Lauder Design Fund, 1981<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.5.jpg","width":337,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Die Praktische K\üche<br>(The practical kitchen)<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1930<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">H\él\ène Haasbauer-Wallrath<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">Swiss, 1885\–1968<\/span><span class=\"object\">Die Praktische K\üche (The practical kitchen)<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1930<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Poster for an exhibition at Gewerbemuseum Basel, Switzerland<br>Lithograph<\/span><span class=\"production\">Printer: W. Wasserman, Basel<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of Jim Lapides and the Architecture & Design Purchase Fund, 2010<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"In the late 1920s and the 1930s, kitchens were highlighted\r\nin many modern architecture exhibitions. This\r\nposter for an exhibition in Basel is dominated by an\r\naxonometric rendering of a miniscule kitchen by Swiss\r\narchitect Rudolf Preiswerk. In the exhibition, visitors\r\ncould see a full-scale model of the same design, which\r\nhad a footprint little more than thirty-seven square feet\r\n(3.4 square meters). In the accompanying catalogue,\r\nGerman design reformer Erna Meyer identified such compact and ergonomic arrangements as the most important trend in modern kitchen design."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.61.jpg","width":585,"height":274,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Kubus Stacking Storage Containers<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1938<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Wilhelm Wagenfeld<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">German, 1900\–1990<\/span><span class=\"object\">Kubus Stacking Storage Containers<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1938<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Molded glass<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Vereinigte Lausitzer Glaswerke AG, Weisswasser, Germany<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Mrs. Armand P. Bartos Fund, 1990<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"In 1935 Wagenfeld was appointed art director of a large glassware manufacturer, Lausitzer Glasverein. The unadorned geometric forms of his popular Kubus containers represented the kind of mass-produced objects that the Bauhaus had aspired to produce. Stackable, modular, space-saving, and hygienic, they could be transferred directly from refrigerator or cupboard to the dining table, and encouraged the thrifty use of leftovers."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.71.jpg","width":585,"height":429,"caption":" <div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Die Wohnung unserer Zeit (The dwelling of our time), German Building Exhibition, Berlin Apartment for a Single Person<\/span><span class=\"object_date\"><\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Lilly Reich<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">German, 1885\–1947<\/span><span class=\"object\">Die Wohnung unserer Zeit (The dwelling of our time), German Building Exhibition, Berlin <br>Apartment for a Single Person<\/span><span class=\"object_date\"><\/span><span class=\"materials\">LEFT: Two perspectives of cooking cupboard with side cabinet<br>Ink on tracing paper<br>RIGHT, TOP:Elevations and section of cooking cupboard<br>Ink on cloth<\/span><span class=\"production\"><\/span><span class=\"credits\">Lilly Reich Collection. Mies van der Rohe Archive<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\">\© 2010 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York \/ VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn<\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"In her design of several kitchens at the 1931 German Building Exhibition in Berlin, Reich embraced the rational principles of domestic reformers Christine Frederick and Erna Meyer. Reich\’s Apartment for a Single Person featured a cooking cabinet that was subsequently put into production by Otto Kahn. When closed, it appeared to be an ordinary closet or wardrobe, but when opened it revealed a sink, shelves, two burners, drawers, counter space, and a hook on which to hang a kettle."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.8.jpg","width":354,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Gaz Cuit-Chauffe-Glace (Gas, it cooks, heats, cools)<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1928<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Francis Bernard<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">French, 1900\–1979<\/span><span class=\"object\">Gaz Cuit-Chauffe-Glace (Gas, it cooks, heats, cools)<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1928<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Lithograph<\/span><span class=\"production\">Printer: Paul Martail, Paris<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Department Purchase Funds, 1987<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"In 1923 more than 100,000 visitors flocked to the first Salon des Arts M\énagers (Exhibition of Household Arts) in Paris to admire modern kitchens, new vacuum cleaners, and other domestic innovations. The aims of the salon were both educational and commercial, in keeping with similar fairs that were being established in other European centers at the time. This poster was commissioned for the 1928 salon by a society promoting the development of the French gas industry. By dramatically highlighting the gas valve, Bernard focused attention on the simple gesture required to release gas for purposes of cooking, heating, and refrigeration."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.91.jpg","width":585,"height":378,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Crusader Hotel Sauce Pots<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1920s<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Lalance & Grosjean Mfg. Co.<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">USA<\/span><span class=\"object\">Crusader Hotel Sauce Pots<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1920s<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Stainless steel<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Lalance & Grosjean Mfg. Co., Woodhaven, New York<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the manufacturer, 1934<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.10.jpg","width":354,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">A Better Home<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1937\–41<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Lester Beall<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">American, 1903\–1969<\/span><span class=\"object\">A Better Home<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1937\–41<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Poster for the Rural Electrification Administration, USA<br>Offset lithograph and screenprint<\/span><span class=\"production\"><\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the designer<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"The core message of Beall\’s poster was simple: electrification of the kitchen would create a better home, and the patriotic color scheme seems to imply that this was in the national interest, creating a more cohesive society through the spread of basic amenities to all regions and social groups. As part of Franklin D. Roosevelt\’s New Deal program, the Rural Electric Administration (REA) was created in 1935 to bring electricity to impoverished areas where as few as ten percent of homes had electric power. Public officials recognized the effectiveness of commercial advertising strategies\—like this poster\—in their mission to convince rural housewives of the benefits of switching from wood, coal, and oil to electricity."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.11.jpg","width":569,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Teakettle<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1939<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Trace and Warner<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">USA<\/span><span class=\"object\">Teakettle<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1939<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Cast aluminum and plastic<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Club Aluminum Products Co., Chicago<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the manufacturer, 1944<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.12.jpg","width":510,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Cookie Cutters<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1940<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Unknown designer<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\"><\/span><span class=\"object\">Cookie Cutters<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1940<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Tin<\/span><span class=\"production\"><\/span><span class=\"credits\">Purchase, 1942<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.131.jpg","width":585,"height":447,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Frying Pan<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1942<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Corning Glass Works<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">USA, established 1851<\/span><span class=\"object\">Frying Pan<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1942<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Borosilicate glass (Pyrex) and steel<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Corning Glass Works, Corning, New York<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Purchase, 1944\–48<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.14.jpg","width":357,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">He Spreads Disease<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1941<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Herbert Tomlinson<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">British, born 1902<\/span><span class=\"object\">He Spreads Disease<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1941<\/span><span class=\"materials\"><\/span><span class=\"production\"><\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of Mrs. John Carter, 1943<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.15.jpg","width":310,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">One Rabbit Has at Least 12 Young in a Year <br>= 45 lbs of Meat<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1941<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Frederick H. K. Henrion<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">British, 1914\–1990<\/span><span class=\"object\">One Rabbit Has at Least 12 Young in a Year = 45 lbs of Meat<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">c. 1941<\/span><span class=\"materials\"><\/span><span class=\"production\"><\/span><span class=\"credits\"><\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.16.jpg","width":305,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Grow Your Own Food<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1942<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Abram Games<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">British, 1914\–1996<\/span><span class=\"object\">Grow Your Own Food<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1942<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Lithograph<\/span><span class=\"production\">Publisher: British War Office<br>Printer: J. Weiner Ltd., London<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of Mrs. John Carter, 1943<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"The thrifty aesthetics and labor-saving ethos of the New Kitchen came to the fore during World War II. Merchant shipping was immediately targeted by German U-boats, disrupting the importation of food into Britain that had previously amounted to 55 million tons a year. From the outset of the war, the mandatory rationing of food, resources, and furnishings became an ever-present concern.<br><br>Through posters commissioned from leading commercial artists of the day, the Ministry of Information conveyed messages about the vital need for food conservation, home gardening, and the elimination of vermin from the kitchen. Although the political context is now very different, this poster campaign, with its emphasis on food hygiene, eating locally, and responsible consumption, remains relevant today."},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.17.jpg","width":314,"height":475,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">The Vegetabull<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1943<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">Jan Lewitt<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">British, born Poland. 1907\–1991<\/span><span class=\"maker\">George Him<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">British, born Poland. 1900\–1982<\/span><span class=\"object\">The Vegetabull<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1943<\/span><span class=\"materials\"><\/span><span class=\"production\"><\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the designers, 1947<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":""},{"url":"http:\/\/www.moma.org\/explore\/inside_out\/inside_out\/wp-content\/uploads\/2010\/08\/1.181.jpg","width":585,"height":340,"caption":"<div class=\"caption_short\"><span class=\"object\">Universal Pressure Cooker<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1945<\/span> <a href=\"#\" class=\"open\">+<\/a><\/div> <div class=\"caption_long\"> <span class=\"maker\">William J. Russell<\/span><span class=\"maker_details\">American<\/span><span class=\"object\">Universal Pressure Cooker<\/span><span class=\"object_date\">1945<\/span><span class=\"materials\">Aluminum, steel, and plastic<\/span><span class=\"production\">Manufactured by Landers, Frary & Clark, New Britain, Connecticut<\/span><span class=\"credits\">Gift of the manufacturer<\/span><span class=\"imagerights\"><\/span><a href=\"#\" class=\"close\">-<\/a><\/div>","description":"The first saucepan-style pressure cooker was launched at the 1939 World\’s Fair in New York, and rapidly gained popularity throughout the United States and Europe. Apart from enabling reduced cooking times, the product\’s main selling point was the way it maintained food\’s vitamin and mineral content. Landers, Frary & Clark had used the trade name \“Universal\” since the 1890s and manufactured an increasingly diverse range of metal products for the modern kitchen under the moniker, from mousetraps and percolators to can openers, electric ranges, and aluminum cookware."}]};</script> <noscript> <div class="wp-caption"> <img src="http://www.moma.org/explore/inside_out/inside_out/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/1.1.jpg" width="445" height="475" alt="<div class="caption_short"><span class="object">Electric Kettle</span><span class="object_date">1909</span> <a href="#" class="open">+</a></div> <div class="caption_long"> <span class="maker">Peter Behrens</span><span class="maker_details">German, 1868–1940</span><span class="object">Electric Kettle</span><span class="object_date">1909</span><span class="materials">Nickel-plated brass and rattan</span><span class="production">Manufactured by Allgemeine Elektrizitäts Gesellschaft, Frankfurt a. M.</span><span class="credits">Gift of Manfred Ludewig, 1992</span><span class="imagerights"></span><a href="#" class="close">-</a></div>" /> <p class="wp-caption-text"><div class="caption_short"><span class="object">Electric Kettle</span><span class="object_date">1909</span> <a href="#" class="open">+</a></div> <div class="caption_long"> <span class="maker">Peter Behrens</span><span class="maker_details">German, 1868–1940</span><span class="object">Electric Kettle</span><span class="object_date">1909</span><span class="materials">Nickel-plated brass and rattan</span><span class="production">Manufactured by Allgemeine Elektrizitäts Gesellschaft, Frankfurt a. M.</span><span class="credits">Gift of Manfred Ludewig, 1992</span><span class="imagerights"></span><a href="#" class="close">-</a></div></p> </div> </noscript> </div> <h2>video</h2> <div id="videos"> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td><a href="#video1" rel="videobox"><img src="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_small/45702.png" alt="" width="190" /></a><br /> <a href="#video1" rel="videobox">The Home Electrical<br /> <span class="date">1915</span></a><br /> <span class="materials">Black and white, silent<br />9:00 min.<br /> Produced by General Electric Co.</span></td> <td><a href="#video2" rel="videobox"><img src="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_small/45982.png" alt="" width="190" /></a><br /> <a href="#video2" rel="videobox">Original Films of Frank B. Gilbreth <span class="date">1910&ndash;24</span></a><br /> <span class="materials">Black and white, silent<br />32:00 min.<br /> Presented by James S. Perkins in collaboration with Dr. Lillian M. Gilbreth and Dr. Ralph M. Barnes</span></td> <td><a href="#video3" rel="videobox"><img src="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_small/45856.png" alt="" width="190" /></a><br /> <a href="#video3" rel="videobox">Buy an Electric Refrigerator <span class="date">1927</span></a><br /> <span class="materials">Black and white, sound<br />00:36 min.<br /> Produced by the Electric League of Pittsburgh</span></td> </tr> <tr> <td><a href="#video4" rel="videobox"><img src="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_small/45870.png" alt="" width="190" /></a><br /> <a href="#video4" rel="videobox">Steel: A Symphony of Industry <span class="date">1936</span></a><br /> <span class="materials">Black and white, sound<br />3:20 min.<br /> Produced by Audio Productions</span></td> <td><a href="#video5" rel="videobox"><img src="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_small/45940.png" alt="" width="190" /></a><br /> <a href="#video5" rel="videobox">Mrs. Modern vs. Mrs. Drudge <span class="date">1939</span></a><br /> <span class="materials">Color, sound<br />1:45 min.<br /> Excerpted from <i>The Middletown Family at the New York World’s Fair</i><br /> Produced by Audio Productions, Inc.</span></tr> <td></tr> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <p>These public domain films are provided by <a href="http://www.archive.org" target="_blank">archive.org</a>.</p> <div id="video1" class="hidden"> <a href="http://moma.org/video_file/video_file/680/01_HomeElectrical.flv" class="asset">The Home Electrical</a><br /> <a href="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_normal/45702.png" class="image">The Home Electrical</a></p> <p class="subtitle"> </div> <div id="video3" class="hidden"> <a href="http://moma.org/video_file/video_file/687/05_BuyElectricRefri_copy.flv" class="asset">Buy an Electric Refrigerator</a><br /> <a href="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_normal/45856.png" class="image">Buy an Electric Refrigerator</a></p> <p class="subtitle"> </div> <div id="video4" class="hidden"> <a href="http://moma.org/video_file/video_file/710/06_singing_steel_copy.flv" class="asset">Steel: A Symphony of Industry</a><br /> <a href="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_normal/45870.png" class="image">Steel: A Symphony of Industry</a> </div> <div id="video2" class="hidden"> <a href="http://moma.org/video_file/video_file/717/02_OriginalFilm_2.flv" class="asset">Original Films of Frank B. Gilbreth</a><br /> <a href="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_normal/45982.png" class="image">Original Films of Frank B. Gilbreth</a> </div> <div id="video5" class="hidden"> <a href="http://moma.org/video_file/video_file/714/01_middleton_family_at_the_worlds_fair_1939.flv" class="asset">Mrs. Modern vs. Mrs. Drudge. 1939</a><br /> <a href="http://moma.org/images/dynamic_content/media_normal/45940.png" class="image">Mrs. Modern vs. Mrs. Drudge. 1939</a> </div> </div> <div id="sidebar"> <div id="recentblogs"> <h3>recent blog posts</h3> <ul> <li> <small>April 28, 2011</small> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/blog/hidden-kitchens">Hidden Kitchens</a> </li> <li> <small>March 2, 2011</small> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/blog/home-is-where-the-art-is">Home Is Where the Art Is</a> </li> <li> <small>February 21, 2011</small> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/blog/today-a-live-streaming-walkthrough-of-the-counter-space-exhibition">Today: A Live-Streaming Walkthrough of the <i>Counter Space</i> Exhibition</a> </li> <li> <small>February 15, 2011</small> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/blog/eat-drink-read-moma">Eat, Drink, (Read!) MoMA</a> </li> <li> <small>December 23, 2010</small> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/blog/kitchen-culture-in-motion">Kitchen Culture, In Motion</a> </li> </ul> </div> <div id="collection"><a href="http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?SHR&tag=CounterSpace">view selected works<br>in the online collection</a></div> <div id="links"> <ul> <li><a href="http://store.moma.org/museum/moma/ProductDisplay_Counter%20Space:%20Design%20and%20the%20Modern%20Kitchen%20%2528HC%2529_10451_10001_105946_-1_26683_11492_105961?cm_mmc=MoMA-_-Other-_-Subsites-_-Counter+Space">publication</a></li> <li> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/resources">resources</a></li> <li> <a href="/interactives/exhibitions/2010/counter_space/credits">credits</a></li> <li><a href="http://moma.org/wp/inside_out/category/exhibitions/current/counter-space/feed/">rss</a></li> </div> <div id="events"> <h3>related events</h3> <div class="JS_Widget"> <a href="/widgets/calendar/counter_space/list/10000" rel=""></a> </div> </div> <div style="clear:both;"></div> </div> <br class="clear" /> </div>