Carol Rama Opera n. 11 (Renards) 1938

  • Not on view

Rama’s watercolors were deemed “obscene” and censored by the Italian Fascist government when they were first exhibited in Turin in 1945. The northern Italian city was home to an emerging generation of artists, some of whom are represented here. A self-taught artist whose childhood was marked by poverty and trauma, Rama began making eccentric, sexually explicit watercolors in the late 1930s. This example, in a frame chosen by the artist, features four blood-tinted fox stoles dangling above a pair of high heels—fashionable accessories that Rama’s work gleefully derides. Claiming only “the sense of sin” as her muse, she refused close alliance with any one group or style.

Gallery label from "Collection: 1940s—1970s", 2019
Watercolor on paper
28 1/4 × 18 3/8" (71.8 × 46.7 cm)
Promised gift of Alice and Tom Tisch
Object number
Drawings and Prints

Installation views

We have identified these works in the following photos from our exhibition history.

How we identified these works

In 2018–19, MoMA collaborated with Google Arts & Culture Lab on a project using machine learning to identify artworks in installation photos. That project has concluded, and works are now being identified by MoMA staff.

If you notice an error, please contact us at [email protected].


If you would like to reproduce an image of a work of art in MoMA’s collection, or an image of a MoMA publication or archival material (including installation views, checklists, and press releases), please contact Art Resource (publication in North America) or Scala Archives (publication in all other geographic locations).

MoMA licenses archival audio and select out of copyright film clips from our film collection. At this time, MoMA produced video cannot be licensed by MoMA/Scala. All requests to license archival audio or out of copyright film clips should be addressed to Scala Archives at [email protected]. Motion picture film stills cannot be licensed by MoMA/Scala. For access to motion picture film stills for research purposes, please contact the Film Study Center at [email protected]. For more information about film loans and our Circulating Film and Video Library, please visit

If you would like to reproduce text from a MoMA publication, please email [email protected]. If you would like to publish text from MoMA’s archival materials, please fill out this permission form and send to [email protected].


This record is a work in progress. If you have additional information or spotted an error, please send feedback to [email protected].