Hito Steyerl. How Not to Be Seen: A Fucking Didactic Educational .MOV File. 2013

Hito Steyerl How Not to Be Seen: A Fucking Didactic Educational .MOV File 2013

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Both drawing from and subverting the conventions of documentary film, Steyerl’s essayistic videos explore how images are produced, circulated, and interpreted. In her writings, she has referred to images as a “condensation of social forces”: in a world so heavily reliant on the exchange of digital information, digital images—due to their widespread proliferation and vulnerability to manipulation—serve as artifacts of social and political systems and their biases.

For this work, whose basic premise is borrowed from a 1970 Monty Python sketch also titled “How Not to Be Seen,” the artist has satirically adopted the format of an instructional video to demonstrate strategies for remaining “unseen” in an age of “total over-visibility.” These tactics are narrated by a robotic voice and presented through real and virtual imagery that merge and interact. The work continually returns to the site of now-decommissioned US Air Force aerial-photography calibration targets in the California desert, for example, and to an animated rendering of a luxury residential housing complex.

The video reflects on the tension between the unprecedented capabilities of technology to surveil humans and encroach on physical experience, and the social and political invisibility of marginalized populations. In searing commentary, both poignant and absurd, the disembodied speaker enumerates strategies for becoming invisible, including “being female and over fifty,” “being a disappeared person as an enemy of the state,” “being a Wi-Fi signal moving through human bodies,” and “being spam caught by a filter.”

Publication excerpt from MoMA Highlights: 375 Works from The Museum of Modern Art, New York (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2019)
Additional text

Artist and critic Hito Steyerl's video works explore how images are produced, circulated, and shared. The artist has referred to images as a "condensation of social forces," suggesting that through them we can trace the underlying systems of the contemporary world.

In this satirical take on instructional films, Steyerl demonstrates several tongue-in-cheek strategies for remaining "unseen" in a world subject to new, sophisticated means of surveillance—pointing to the ways in which our technologies encroach on physical experience. Much of the work was shot on a desert site riddled with photo calibration targets used by the military to hone the focus of airplane cameras. Acts of war are therefore mediated by digital tools; Steyerl drives this point home by superimposing a computer desktop onto the desert landscape, underscoring the links between economies of violence, communication, and entertainment. In her words, "How do people disappear in an age of total over-visibility? . . . Are people hidden by too many images? Do they go hide amongst other images? Do they become images?"

Gallery label from Cut to Swipe, October 11, 2014–March 22, 2015.
Video (color, sound)
14 min.
Committee on Media and Performance Art Funds
Object number
© 2020 Hito Steyerl
Media and Performance

Installation views

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