Georges Rouault. Plus le coeur est noble, moins le col est roide (The Nobler the Heart, the Less Stiff the Collar) for the illustrated book Miserere. 1926, published 1948

Georges Rouault Plus le coeur est noble, moins le col est roide (The Nobler the Heart, the Less Stiff the Collar) for the illustrated book Miserere 1926, published 1948

  • Not on view

Georges Rouault is best known for his Christian imagery, his mythological subjects, and his depictions of everyday figures rendered in layers of brilliant, luminous color with thick, black outlines. In his paintings and prints, he commented on the human condition, contrasting the noble and the ignoble, the rich and the poor, the powerful and the meek. With his monumental tome Miserere, Rouault explored themes of suffering and redemption that are reflected in his work overall.

Miserere contains fifty-eight illustrations, which were first made as watercolors and oil paintings and then transferred to copperplates by means of photogravure. Rouault reworked these plates repeatedly over two decades, using aquatint, etching, and engraving to achieve rich blacks and grays. Originally titled Miserere et Guerre (Miserere and War), this book, a collaboration with the artist's dealer Ambroise Vollard, was begun in 1914 but not published until after Vollard's death in 1939. The Bible, Christian theology, popular French songs, Greco-Roman mythology, and the tragic context of World War I all served as sources for the moralistic and spiritualist content of Rouault's images for this project, as well as for the short captions that comprise the text. The plate shown here, which mocks a soldier in a stiff collar, exemplifies Rouault's critique of the vanity and arrogance of those who pursue power.

The artist's often unorthodox use of techniques, learned in part from the many master printers with whom he worked, enabled him to achieve highly expressive effects. While he experimented widely with color, his choice of black-and-white illustrations for Miserere seems particularly fitting for the subject, and these prints remain his most admired today. Until 1940, when Rouault returned almost exclusively to painting, he completed approximately three hundred sixty-five prints, nearly half of which were published in illustrated books.

Publication excerpt from an essay by Jennifer Roberts, in Deborah Wye, Artists and Prints: Masterworks from The Museum of Modern Art, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2004, p. 87.
Georges Rouault
Aquatint, drypoint and photogravure with ink additions
plate: 23 1/16 x 16 5/8" (58.6 x 42.3 cm); sheet: 25 9/16 x 19 3/4" (65 x 50.2 cm)
Édition de L'Étoile Filante, Paris
Jacquemin, Paris
proof before the 1948 edition of 425
Gift of the artist
Object number
© 2020 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris
Drawings and Prints

Installation views

How we identified these works

In 2018–19, MoMA collaborated with Google Arts & Culture Lab on a project using machine learning to identify artworks in installation photos. That project has concluded, and works are now being identified by MoMA staff.

If you notice an error, please contact us at [email protected].


If you would like to reproduce an image of a work of art in MoMA’s collection, or an image of a MoMA publication or archival material (including installation views, checklists, and press releases), please contact Art Resource (publication in North America) or Scala Archives (publication in all other geographic locations).

All requests to license audio or video footage produced by MoMA should be addressed to Scala Archives at [email protected]. Motion picture film stills or motion picture footage from films in MoMA’s Film Collection cannot be licensed by MoMA/Scala. For licensing motion picture film footage it is advised to apply directly to the copyright holders. For access to motion picture film stills please contact the Film Study Center. More information is also available about the film collection and the Circulating Film and Video Library.

If you would like to reproduce text from a MoMA publication or, please email [email protected]. If you would like to publish text from MoMA’s archival materials, please fill out this permission form and send to [email protected].


This record is a work in progress. If you have additional information or spotted an error, please send feedback to [email protected].