In 1913, Marcel Duchamp dropped three one-meter-long pieces of thread onto three canvases, letting them fall as they may. The result was 3 Standard Stoppages, described by Duchamp as an “experiment . . . made . . . to imprison and preserve forms obtained through chance.” That same year, he composed Erratum Musical (heard playing in this gallery) by drawing music notes from a hat.
Duchamp and many of the other artists with works on view were associated with Dada, a movement that embraced chance operations, irreverent humor, and the absurd to critique not only the social, political, and cultural structures they held responsible for World War I, but also rational thought itself. By opening art up to accident, randomness, and contingency, Duchamp and his peers also challenged centuries of thinking about artistic agency. Inspired by their example, the works and text panel in this gallery are installed in a sequence from 0 to 21 that was randomly generated by drawing images of each from a bag.