Influenced by the writings of psychologist Sigmund Freud, the literary, intellectual, and artistic movement called Surrealism sought a revolution against the constraints of the rational mind; and by extension, the rules of a society they saw as oppressive. Freud and other psychoanalysts used a variety of techniques to bring to the surface the subconscious thoughts of their patients. The Surrealists borrowed many of the same techniques to stimulate their writing and art, with the belief that the creativity that came from deep within a person’s subconscious could be more powerful and authentic than any product of conscious thought.
In psychology, “automatism” refers to involuntary actions and processes not under the control of the conscious mind—for example, dreaming, breathing, or a nervous tic. Automatism plays a role in Surrealists techniques such as spontaneous or automatic writing, painting, and drawing; free association of images and words; and collaborative creation though games like Exquisite Corpse. Surrealists were also deeply interested in interpreting dreams as conduits for unspoken feelings and desires. The works explored here did not begin with preconceived notions of a finished product; rather, they were provoked by dreams, or emerged from subconscious associations between images, text, and their meanings.
The method with which an artist, writer, performer, athlete, or other producer employs technical skills or materials to achieve a finished product or endeavor.
A form, sign, or emblem that represents something else, often something immaterial, such as an idea or emotion.
A literary, intellectual, and artistic movement that began in Paris in 1924 and was active through World War II. Influenced by Sigmund Freud’s writings on psychology, Surrealists, led by André Breton, were interested in how the irrational, unconscious mind could move beyond the constraints of the rational world. Surrealism grew out of dissatisfaction with traditional social values and artistic practices after World War I.
The part of the mind below the level of conscious perception. The Surrealists derived much inspiration from psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud’s theories on dreams and the workings of the subconscious mind.
Technique of reproducing a texture or relief design by laying paper over it and rubbing it with some drawing medium, for example pencil or crayon. Max Ernst and other Surrealist artists incorporated such rubbings into their paintings by means of collage.
A technique developed by psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud to help discover ideas and associations that a patient had developed, initially, at a subconscious level.
A game in which each participant takes turns writing or drawing on a sheet of paper, folds it to conceal his or her contribution, then passes it to the next player for a further contribution. The game gained popularity in artistic circles during the 1920s, when it was adopted as a technique by artists of the Surrealist movement.
Something that restricts, limits, or regulates.
The technique and resulting work of art in which fragments of paper and other materials are arranged and glued to a supporting surface.
The process of writing or creating art without conscious thought. The term was borrowed from physiology, which uses the term to denote involuntary processes that are not under conscious control, such as breathing. The Surrealists later applied to techniques of spontaneous writing, drawing, and painting.
SLIDESHOW: View these Exquisite Corpses made by the MoMA Learning community. Share yours by taking a photo of your finished work and uploading it to Flickr with the tag “MoMA Learning Exquisite Corpse.” Check back often!
SLIDESHOW: Frottage works made by members of the MoMA Learning community. To share your own frottage, take a photo and upload it to Flickr with the tag “MoMA Learning Frottage.” Check this page often to see what others have done!
Questions & Activities
Sigmund Freud and other psychoanalysts used a variety of techniques to discover the subconscious thoughts of their patients. The Surrealists used many of the same techniques to stimulate their writing and art. One of the best-known techniques is called “free association.”
You will need a partner for this activity. Copy five of the following words onto a sheet of paper and read them to your partner one at a time. After you read each word, instruct your partner to respond immediately with the first word that comes to mind. Jot down their responses next to each word on the paper, then switch! Are any of these associations surprising?
Feel free to come up with a new list of words for additional rounds.
Play Exquisite Corpse
These instructions for playing Exquisite Corpse were originally published in a 1927 issue of the Surrealist journal La revolution Surrealiste. Play a round with your family or friends (ideally in groups of four). The instructions can be adapted to make drawings, collages, and poems.
- A piece of paper is folded into the same number of sections as there are participants.
- The paper is unfolded and given to the first player, who draws in the first space, spontaneously, leaving slight traces of lines extending into the next section. The player then folds the paper over to hide what he or she drew.
- Each player continues the drawings in their successive section, taking cues from the bits of lines that their predecessor left visible.
- When the last player has finished, the sheet is opened to reveal the full drawings.
What was it like to draw or write without seeing the other sections? Are you pleased with the results? How do you think your drawings or poems would have differed if you’d had a chance to view the previous contributions?
Share your work with others. Take a photo of your finished work and upload it to Flickr with the tag “MoMA Learning Exquisite Corpse.” Check this page or the Flickr photo set to see other contributions.
Make and Inkblot Drawing
In the days before ballpoint pens, people wrote using metal-tipped nib pens and bottles of ink. Sometimes the metal tips would leak, causing a messy inkblot. Psychoanalysts like Sigmund Freud noticed that people would see pictures in these inkblot patterns; Freud became interested in them as tools for delving into his patients’ subconscious.
Make your own “inkblot” using ink, paint, watercolor—even black coffee or dark tea, if those are more readily available. Drop a bit of your chosen stain in the middle of a sheet of paper. Fold the paper in the center, pressing the two halves together. Repeat this process enough times to create five to 10 inkblot drawings.
Write down the images evoked by the inkblots. If you have friends or family nearby, show your inkblot drawings to them and ask what they see. How are your answers similar? How are they different? Are you surprised by the different associations people have for the same inkblots?
Make a Frottage
Max Ernst used frottage—rubbing atop materials as diverse as string, mesh, even crusty bread—as a way tapping into his subconscious. Find a sheet of paper and place it on a variety of textured surfaces. Rub the paper with a soft pencil or crayon.
What associations with people, symbols, objects, or things from nature do the resulting textures conjure for you? Elaborate on your associations by outlining certain sections, adding new features and colors to the rubbings.
When your picture is complete, share your work with others. Take photos of your finished work and upload it to Flickr with the tag “MoMA Learning Frottage.” Check this page or the Flickr photo set to see what others have shared.