Surrealism was an artistic, intellectual, and literary movement led by poet André Breton from 1924 through World War II. The Surrealists sought to overthrow the oppressive rules of modern society by demolishing its backbone of rational thought. To do so, they attempted to tap into the “superior reality” of the subconscious mind. “Completely against the tide,” said Breton, “in a violent reaction against the impoverishment and sterility of thought processes that resulted from centuries of rationalism, we turned toward the marvelous and advocated it unconditionally.”1
Many of the tenets of Surrealism, including an emphasis on automatism, experimental uses of language, and found objects, had been present to some degree in the Dada movement that preceded it. However, the Surrealists systematized these strategies within the framework of psychologist Sigmund Freud’s theories on dreams and the subconscious mind. In his 1924 Surrealist Manifesto, Breton defined Surrealism as “Psychic automatism in its pure state, by which one proposes to express…the actual functioning of thought…in the absence of any control exercised by reason, exempt from any aesthetic or moral concern.”2
Dada & Surrealism
While Dada was decentralized in terms of geography and leadership, the center of Surrealism was Paris, with Breton unequivocally at the helm. While Dada was in many ways an anarchic movement, the Surrealists were known for engaging in collective group actions.
The Surrealist circle was relatively cohesive, but the individuals within it hailed from a variety of nations, and their artistic approaches were similarly diverse. They believed that automatic drawings unlocked the contents of the subconscious mind, while hyper-real landscape paintings conjured the uncanny imagery of dreams. Incongruous combinations of found objects combined in Surrealist assemblages revealed the fraught sexual and psychological forces they believed were hidden just beneath the surface of reality.
A global war, one of the most widespread in human history, fought between 1939 and 1945, and resulting in the wholesale reshaping of nations, populations, and worldwide balances of power.
A work of art made from paint applied to canvas, wood, paper, or another support (noun).
A literary, intellectual, and artistic movement that began in Paris in 1924 and was active through World War II. Influenced by Sigmund Freud’s writings on psychology, Surrealists, led by André Breton, were interested in how the irrational, unconscious mind could move beyond the constraints of the rational world. Surrealism grew out of dissatisfaction with traditional social values and artistic practices after World War I.
In popular writing about psychology, the division of the mind containing the sum of all thoughts, memories, impulses, desires, feelings, etc., that are not subject to a person’s perception or control but that often affect conscious thoughts and behavior (noun). The Surrealists derived much inspiration from psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud’s theories on dreams and the workings of the subconscious mind.
Modern can mean related to current times, but it can also indicate a relationship to a particular set of ideas that, at the time of their development, were new or even experimental.
A public declaration, often political in nature, of a group or individual’s principles, beliefs, and intended courses of action.
The natural landforms of a region; also, an image that has natural scenery as its primary focus.
An object—often utilitarian, manufactured, or naturally occurring—that was not originally designed for an artistic purpose, but has been discovered and repurposed in an artistic context.
An artistic and literary movement that grew out of dissatisfaction with traditional social values and conventional artistic practices during World War I (1914–18). Dada artists were disillusioned by the social values that led to the war and sought to expose accepted and often repressive conventions of order and logic by shocking people into self-awareness.
The process of writing or creating art without conscious thought. The term was borrowed from physiology, which uses the term to denote involuntary processes that are not under conscious control, such as breathing. The Surrealists later applied to techniques of spontaneous writing, drawing, and painting.
A three-dimensional composition made from a variety of traditionally non-artistic materials and objects.
Relating to or characterized by a concern with beauty or good taste (adjective); a particular taste or approach to the visual qualities of an object (noun).
Related Artists: Jean (Hans) Arp, Hans Bellmer, Cadavre Exquis with Yves Tanguy, Joan Miró, Max Morise, Man Ray (Emmanuel Radnitzky), Joseph Cornell, Salvador Dalí, Max Ernst, Alberto Giacometti, Marcel Jean, Wifredo Lam, René Magritte, Man Ray, Man Ray (Emmanuel Radnitzky), André Masson, Joan Miró, Joan Miró, Max Morise, Meret Oppenheim, Yves Tanguy
Questions & Activities
Write Your Manifesto
Read. A manifesto is a public declaration, often political in nature, of a group or individual’s principles, beliefs, and intended courses of action. To begin this activity, read André Breton’s First Manifesto of Surrealism (1924).
Write. Now it’s your turn. Compose your own one-page manifesto in the form of an essay or a poem. Your manifesto should include a series of statements that address your point of view on questions such as:
What do you value?
What inspires you?
How would you describe your attitude or approach to creativity?
What changes would you like to see in the world?
It is helpful to begin the statements in your manifesto with actions such as:
I wish to change…
I will not…