Expressionism

Amid the destruction of World War I, German and Austrian Expressionists responded to the anxiety of modern life.


Expressionism and City Life

Through their art, German and Austrian Expressionists expressed their conflicted views of urban life.


Expressionist Portraits

Expressionist portraits reveal more than just what people look like.


Expressionism and Nature

For the German Expressionists, nature was an arena for healing and freedom.


Expressionist Depictions of War

German Expressionists, many of whom fought in World War I, depicted the shattering experience of war.


Extreme angles, flattened forms, garish colors, and distorted views are distinctive features of Expressionism, an international movement in art, architecture, literature, and performance that flourished between 1905 and 1920, especially in Germany and Austria. Starting in 1905, as industry grew in Europe, the Expressionists migrated to cities. There they formed groups such as Die Brücke (The Bridge) and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), shared studios, exhibited together, and published their work and writing.

The Expressionists revolted against Impressionism, with its faithfulness to rendering nature as it appeared, a view expressed by Austrian writer Hermann Bahr, who stated, “Impressionism is the falling away of man from spirit. Impressionism is man lowered to the position of a gramophone record of the outer world.”1 The Expressionists’ goal was to depict the world as it felt viscerally rather than how it looked on the surface and, by doing so, to reinvigorate art with authenticity and expressive force.

In their quest for authenticity, Expressionists looked for inspiration beyond European art and culture to native folk traditions and tribal art. They frequented ethnographic museums and world’s fairs, where they encountered collections of African and Oceanic art. Reflecting a common attitude of the time, Expressionists perceived non-Western art as “primitive,” unevolved, and therefore closer to the origins of humanity. They borrowed stylistically from what they encountered—including geometric ornamentation, decorative patterning, and flattened planes. As Germany neared the onset of World War I, more elements of the grotesque appeared in Expressionist work. Expressionists embraced printmaking as a way to quickly distribute work to a larger audience and as a means of promoting or criticizing social or political causes.

Harrison, Charles and Paul Wood, eds. "Expressionism, 1916, Munich," in Art in Theory 1900–2000 (Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, 2003, second edition),116–17  

A 19th-century art movement, associated especially with French artists, whose works are characterized by relatively small, thin, visible brushstrokes that coalesce to form a single scene and emphasize movement and the changing qualities of light. Anti-academic in its formal aspects, Impressionism also involved the establishment of independent exhibitions outside of the established and official venues of the day.

Artist group active in Dresden, Germany, from 1905 to 1913, and closely associated with the development of Expressionism. The group is associated with an interest in the distortion of reality and expressive use of color to respond to the turmoil of modern urban society.

Artist group active in Munich, Germany, from 1911 to 1914, and closely associated with the development of Expressionism. The group’s aim was to express their own inner desires in a variety of forms, rather than to strive for a unified style or theme.

Related Artists: Max Beckmann, Otto Dix, George Grosz, Erich Heckel, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Oskar Kokoschka, Käthe Kollwitz, Franz Marc, Max Pechstein, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff

Multimedia

AUDIO: An introduction to the exhibition German Expressionism: The Graphic Impulse

AUDIO: Curator Starr Figura moderates a discussion panel on the power of prints as disseminators of art and ideas