Related themes


Intersecting Identities

Artists often address their multiple, intersecting identities in a work of art.


Jewish Jackie

Deborah Kass
(American, born 1952)

1992. Xerox, composition 16 x 20 9/16" (40.7 x 52.3 cm)

In 1992, Kass embarked on The Warhol Project, a multiyear series responding to the celebrity portraits of Pop artist Andy Warhol. In Jewish Jackie, Kass takes Warhol’s paintings that repeat an image of former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis in profile and replaces her with actress and singer Barbra Streisand. While growing up as a Jewish American girl, Kass noticed that people on television and in movies looked different than she did. Streisand, also Jewish, was someone with whom she could identify: “I had never seen a movie star that looked like Barbra, which is to say that looked like me and everyone I knew,”1 she says.

Andy Warhol. Jackie II from 11 Pop Artists, volume II. 1966. Screenprint. Composition and sheet: 24 x 29 15/16" (60.9 x 76.1 cm)

Andy Warhol. Jackie II from 11 Pop Artists, volume II. 1966. Screenprint. Composition and sheet: 24 x 29 15/16″ (60.9 x 76.1 cm)

Kass’s work could be considered both an homage to Andy Warhol and a critique of exclusionary depictions of glamour and beauty in mainstream media. For Kass, appropriating Warhol’s work allowed her to insert aspects her identity into the history of art: “In my own work I replace Andy’s male homosexual desire with my own specificity: Jew love, female voice, and blatant lesbian diva worship.”2

Barbara Klein, “Personal Pop,” Carnegie Museum, Fall 2012. Available online at http://www.carnegiemuseums.org/cmag/article.php?id=337
Mary Anne Staniszewski, “First Person Plural: The Paintings of Deborah Kass,” in Michael Plante, Deborah Kass: The Warhol Project, New Orleans: Tulane University, 1999, p. 31.
Michael Plante, Deborah Kass: The Warhol Project, New Orleans: Tulane University, 1999, p. 20

The organizing around shared cultural characteristics such as race, class, and religion.

A form, sign, or emblem that represents something else, often something immaterial, such as an idea or emotion.

A side view, usually referring to that of a human head.

A representation of a particular individual.

A movement composed of initially British, then American artists in the 1950s and 1960s, which was characterized by references to imagery and products from popular culture, media, and advertising.

In the visual arts, appropriation is the intentional borrowing, copying, and alteration of preexisting images and objects.

An American Icon
Warhol began using images of Jacqueline Kennedy—affectionately known as “Jackie” by the public—after the 1963 assassination of her husband, President John F. Kennedy. Jacqueline Kennedy was a fashion icon, beloved for her elegant style. On the day of President Kennedy’s death, she wore a pink Chanel suit and pillbox hat, which became a fashion icon and symbol of the national tragedy.

Same Difference
Kass said, “Barbra’s ‘difference’ was clear to everyone from the beginning. She celebrated her difference, while my parents thought she was ugly. If she could look the way she looked and be fabulous, then I could too.”3