Access to Tools

Whole Earth Catalog, Spring 1969

Whole Earth Catalog, spring 1969

In 1968, Stewart Brand founded the Whole Earth Catalog. Brand’s goals were to make a variety of tools accessible to newly dispersed counterculture communities, back-to-the-land households, and innovators in the fields of technology, design, and architecture, and to create a community meeting-place in print. The catalogue quickly developed into a wide-ranging reference for new living spaces, sustainable design, and experimental media and community practices. After only a few years of publication it exploded in popularity, becoming a formidable cultural phenomenon.

Whole Earth Catalog: Function

Function, from Whole Earth Catalog


Books, selected and described by the editorial staff and organized in sections titled Understanding Whole Systems, Shelter and Land Use, Communication, and Community, were the primary resources the Whole Earth Catalog offered. This exhibition of printed matter in the collection of The Museum of Modern Art Library surveys these publications and summarizes the history of the catalogue project. The selection does not represent all the subjects the catalogue featured, but it reflects the publication’s focus on experimental ideas in design and technology and the dialogue between theorists and practitioners these ideas raised.

Whole Earth Catalog Advertisement

Advertisement for Whole Earth Catalog in Whole Earth Catalog

This exhibition is organized by David Senior, Bibliographer, MoMA Library.


Introducing the Whole Earth

Tulane Drama Review

Tulane Drama Review, fall 1966

Prior to publishing the Whole Earth Catalog, Stewart Brand was a member of the art collective USCO, known primarily for its experimental light and sound environments and film projections mounted in museums, dance clubs, theaters, and universities. This feature about USCO includes an image of a pinback button by Brand reading, “Why haven’t we seen a photograph of the whole Earth yet?” He distributed the button widely as part of a campaign for public access to images taken during United States space missions. He believed that a picture of the entire planet would be a unifying force in the management of global ecological challenges.

 

Whole Earth Catalog: Spring 1969

The release of photographs taken during early space missions coincided with the first issues of the Whole Earth Catalog. Brand pioneered the publication and dissemination of the images, putting them on the covers of the first catalogue, in fall 1968, and all successive issues. Throughout its run, the catalogue consistently advertised the pictures and provided instructions for ordering them from the government.

Whole Earth Catalog, spring 1969

UNDERSTANDING WHOLE SYSTEMS

Fuller’s philosophical impact is especially clear in the first section of the catalogue, Understanding Whole Systems. The section begins the catalogue and opens with the line, “The insights of Buckminster Fuller initiated this catalog,” and a review of the architect’s work in print appears on the first page. This section emphasizes the concerns of the Fuller-inspired “comprehensive designer,” giving primary importance to the recognition of universal patterns and forms in nature, culture, and technology.

Buckminster Fuller. Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth (Southern Illinois University Press, 1969).

Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth

Norbert Wiener: The Human Use of Human Beings

In the catalogue, Brand declares of D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson’s publication On Growth and Form that “everyone dealing with growth and form in any manner can use this book. We’ve seen well-worn copies on the shelves of artists, inventors, engineers, computer system designers, biologists.” This list of professions describes the members of Brand’s circle and is an indication of the philosophical inclusiveness of the catalogue. Books listed under Understanding Whole Systems document the growing ecology movement and the systems theory of biologists and designers, and, as in Norbert Wiener's The Human Use of Human Beings, express a holistic philosophy toward global issues and a pragmatic focus on thinkers, designers, and scientists who could provide insight into technological change and the ecological challenges of the future.

Norbert Wiener. The Human Use of Human Beings (Doubleday, 1954).


Whole Earth Bibliography

The first manifestation of the Whole Earth “information service” involved Brand and Lois Jennings selling books and goods out of a truck on communes in the Southwest, in 1968. That summer they commenced work on the catalogue with a group of colleagues under the auspices of Richard Raymond and the Portola Institute, Raymond’s nonprofit educational foundation. They soon moved to a storefront in Menlo Park, California, which housed their offices and the Truck Store, a shop selling some of the materials in the catalogue.

Whole Earth Truck Store

Advertisement for Whole Earth Truck Store

In each subsequent issue, the editors added newly available publications and new listings generated from recommendations by the readership. The Whole Earth Catalog was published biannually between 1968 and 1970, after which several issues were produced outside the official run.

September 1969 Cease Publication Announcement

In September 1969, as the catalogue was gaining wide notoriety, Brand announced that it would cease publication after a final, large issue. The catalogue’s readership grew with each issue, but it increased most dramatically with this one, distributed by Random House. Brand promoted the adoption and replication of the catalogue and store format by other groups in other settings; an article titled “How to Do a Whole Earth Catalog” appears in this final issue.

Cease Publication Announcement. The Whole Earth Catalog. September 1969

Brand invited everyone who had participated in the publication to join in a final celebration called The Demise Party. A story in Rolling Stone documented the event, with a large picture of Brand presiding. In the party’s final hours, Brand presented revelers with the publication’s remaining twenty thousand dollars and asked the crowd to decide how the sum should be spent.

Rolling Stone: The Demise Party

Advertisement from The Last Supplement of the Whole Earth Catalog, 1971


Supplemental Information

The catalogue supplements, later named the $1 Whole Earth Catalog, update information about previously listed items and add new publications and services that arose between printings of the larger catalogues. The catalogue’s supplements most clearly reflect the fact that its voice, organization, and process were driven by feedback and contributions from readers. Sections of the supplements are devoted to mail responding to previous issues, advocating for products and services not listed in the catalogue’s pages, or announcing events.

Production in the Desert

Production in the Desert. In Supplement to the Whole Earth Catalog, January 1971

The supplements also document projects sponsored by the organization and its staff and discuss its business decisions, critiquing its own practices and creating a forum about self-publishing, all the while illustrating its renegade, experimental publishing procedures.

The supplement of January 1971, for example, was produced inside the Pillow, an inflatable structure created by the Ant Farm art collective; editors humorously describe the practical issues that faced them, stationed in an inflatable pillow in the desert of California’s Saline Valley.

Conversations evolved with the input of various contributors, dissenters, and instigators. Guest editors and writers—notably Wendell Berry, Paul Krassner, and Ken Kesey—helped shape the spirit of the supplements. Kesey and Krassner edited the final iteration, which features a cover by R. Crumb.

Working inside the Pillow. Supplement to the Whole Earth Catalog, January 1971

Work in the Pillow


SHELTER AND LAND USE

The catalogue’s Shelter and Land Use section addressed the current state of architectural practice and materials research for builders and designers. Visionary architect, designer, and author Buckminster Fuller was an obvious influence, but the section also listed the work of numerous authors.

Domes Are Our New Homes

The May 1966 issue of Popular Science features an article about Buckminster Fuller’s Sun Dome and an offer for the complete plans and license for five dollars. These plans, as well as Popular Science itself, were regularly featured in the Whole Earth Catalog.

The Dymaxion World of Buckminster Fuller

Robert W. Marks. The Dymaxion World of Buckminster Fuller (New York: Reinhold, 1960).


Inspired by the work of Buckminster Fuller, by the 1970s the hand-built geodesic dome had become synonymous with back-to-the-land communities, and publications such as these helped disseminate building instructions. Drop City was a Colorado artists’ community that used recycled materials—“the garbage of America”—to construct its domes.

Drop City detail

Above: Drop City letter in Supplement to the Whole Earth Catalog, July 1969

Right: Peter Rabbit. Drop City (Olympia Press, 1971).

Drop City cover

Steve Baer was a Drop City builder, and his Dome Cookbook and Zome Primer (1970) were listed in the catalogue as introductions for the budding builder.

Dome Cookbook

Steve Baer. Dome Cookbook (Lama Foundation, 1967).


Lloyd Kahn’s Domebook 2 mainly highlights the structures that he built with students at Pacific High School, an alternative school in the Santa Cruz Mountains south of San Francisco. Jay Baldwin, a former student of Buckminster Fuller and contributor to the Whole Earth Catalog, also participated in these experimental building projects at the school. Kahn was coeditor of several of the Whole Earth Catalogs, and he used equipment from the Whole Earth office to produce the book. Domebook publications were extremely popular, and they directly influenced the dome-building trend that became emblematic of the back-to-land movement.

Domebook 2

Lloyd Kahn. Domebook 2 (Pacific Domes, 1970).


Architecture Without Architects

MoMA’s International Council funded Bernard Rudofsky’s research, which resulted in an exhibition at the Museum and this publication, surveying unique forms in human habitats throughout history and across cultures. The editors of the Whole Earth Catalog made an effort to incorporate non-Western forms and organic design into the dialogue about new ideas for living spaces.

Bernard Rudofsky. Architecture without Architects (Museum of Modern Art, 1964).


Designers who came to Expo ’67 in Montreal to view Fuller’s dome pavilion were equally impressed by Frei Otto’s lightweight tent design for the West German pavilion, which introduced his work to a North American audience. The MIT Press subsequently published two volumes of works on Otto’s engineering research, which were enthusiastically reviewed in the Whole Earth Catalog’s first issue.

Frei Otto. Tensile Structures (MIT Press, 1967).

Tensile Structures

Little Magazines/Whole Earth

The Shelter and Land Use section in the Whole Earth Catalog recommends publications ranging from pragmatic instruction to radical visions of architecture and design. The 1960s and 1970s were marked by an international flourishing of “little magazines,” independent publications in which young architects and designers presented their own content in innovative graphic styles and spread the language of contemporary theorists like Buckminster Fuller and Marshall McLuhan. The catalogue documented this trend and the role of architecture in the counterculture movement.

Architectural Digest October 1971

Architectural Design: A.D., October 1971


A.D. of this period was noted for its Cosmorama section, which reported on experimental projects and exhibitions, as well its profiles of innovative international architects. By February 1971 the magazine had incorporated a catalogue section, describing innovative design objects and tools.

Detail: Architectural Design: A.D., February 1971

Cosmorama - Architectural Design February 1971

Archigram Ad

Beginning in 1960 the London-based collective Archigram, whose name compounds the words architecture and telegram, published periodic eponymous pamphlets, often with inserts or in unconventional packaging. These two issues give a sense of the expressive graphic styles and collage elements the group used to convey its proposals for future urban spaces.

Advertisement for Archigram


Archigram 8

Archigram, no. 8 (1968)


Inflatocookbook Detail

San Francisco-based architecture and art collective Ant Farm self-published this colorful manual. The inflatable structure is the decisive form of Ant Farm’s early practice and this publication provides instructions for those interested in constructing their own, with illustrated examples of the collective’s pneumatic designs and installations.

Detail from Inflatocookbook (Ant Farm, 1971).


COMMUNITY

The catalogue and its supplements regularly featured the organization’s dialogue with colleagues who shared and expanded upon its areas of focus. These publications, many borrowing the Whole Earth Catalog format, were often listed in its Community section.

Friends and Relations

This issue of The Modern Utopian provides a descriptive tour of various communes across the United States.

The Modern Utopian

Communes, USA, special issue, The Modern Utopian 5, no. 1/2/3 (1971)


Written for educators and parents, Big Rock Candy Mountain (BRCM) emphasizes educational tools and strategies. Editors borrowed the structure of the Whole Earth Catalog but presented in-depth articles and extended discussions of learning theory and educational philosophy.

Big Rock Candy Mountain

Big Rock Candy Mountain, summer 1970


Mother Earth News and The Journal of the New Alchemists discuss practical agrarian pursuits such as sustainable growing practices, traditional knowledge, and alternative sources of energy.

Mother Earth News, no. 3 (1970)

Mother Earth

Canadian Whole Earth Almanac

The Canadian Whole Earth Almanac, an obvious offspring of the Whole Earth Catalog, honed its focus through thematic issues. Three issues treat Food, Industry, and Shelter.

Canadian Whole Earth Almanac, 1970–71


Published in San Francisco, Rags documented fashion trends in alternative communities and urban centers as well as the developing genre of ecofashion. It provided a social forum and marketplace for the fashion-minded dropout.

Rags (June 1970)

Rags

Friends

This Rolling Stone–like rock magazine issued four pages of content biweekly that editors described as the “British Whole Earth Catalogue.” Products listed were sourced from manufacturers and booksellers in the United Kingdom. Readers were instructed to cut these pages from each issue of Friends to compile the whole publication.

Friends, no. 14 (September 18, 1970)

.


COMMUNICATIONS

In its Communications section the Whole Earth Catalog traced the rapid development and adoption of computing processes in industry, the sciences, and design. Many publications described in this section, such as Data Study, Basic Graphics, and Diagrams, addressed the new forms of information design and presentation emerging in science and commerce. At this time the personal computer was still years from commercial release. Stewart Brand and others in the Whole Earth community envisioned the PC as part of an evolving cybernetic tool set and a potentially revolutionary technology, democratizing access to information and communication.

Information

Information: A Scientific American Book (W. H. Freeman, 1966).


Cybernetic Notation

Cybernetics, Wiener explains in the book Cybernetics; or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, is a social science that reflects on the systematic relationships developing between society and electronic modes of communication, commerce, and movement. In a “cybernetic society,” information is processed and transferred by computers and communicating networks of machines and their operators. These ideas had a great effect on public discourse about the expanding role of technology. The concepts of networked communication and feedback at the core of the Whole Earth Catalog’s vision were linked directly to Wiener’s writings.

Cybernetic Notation

Norbert Wiener. Cybernetics; or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine (MIT Press, 1961).


Mediated Art

In Understanding Media, McLuhan surveys changes in perception affected by evolving media environments, from early print culture to modern television. For McLuhan, the media environment of the electronic age demanded radically new pedagogy to help young minds navigate these new conditions. Brand’s Whole Earth Catalog, influenced by McLuhan’s work, promoted experiments in new media as responsive to these shifts in culture, offering new possibilities for teaching and learning for an electronic age.

Marshall McLuhan. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (New American Library, 1964).

Understanding Media

Understanding Media Ad

Advertisement for Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man in the Whole Earth Catalog


Kepes’s Vision and Value book series, which includes The Nature and Art of Motion (1965) and Module, Proportion, Symmetry, Rhythm (1965), elaborated on relationships between modern art, architecture, and the visualization of information and energy. The photo at the right is a detail fromThe Nature and Art of Motion.

Aerial view of the New York approaches to the George Washington Bridge (Photo Courtesy Project Sky Count, The Port of New York Authority), in The Nature and Art of Motion, Gyorgy Kepes (George Braziller, 1965).

Nature and Art in Motion detail

Cybernetic Serendipity

This special issue of the magazine Studio International accompanied the exhibition Cybernetic Serendipity at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, London. Representing artists and computer technicians at the cutting edge in computer art practices in the 1960s, it groups sound works, poetry, robotics, digital graphics, and kinetic sculpture as examples of cybernetic art. Works by artist Nam June Paik and composer John Cage are presented alongside visual design from Bell Laboratories and the Boeing Graphics Computer.

Jasia Reichardt, ed. “Cybernetic Serendipity: The Computer and the Arts,” special issue, Studio International, 1968


Expanded Cinema is Youngblood’s extended survey of innovations in the experimental film scene. The “cybernetic movie studio,” he writes, extends filmmaking conventions through the combination of media techniques such as video production, computer-aided design, and experimental projection and sound environments. In his introduction to the book, Buckminster Fuller writes, “Expanded Cinema is the beginning of the new-era educational system itself.”

Gene Youngblood. Expanded Cinema (E. P. Dutton, 1970).

Expanded Cinema

Culture Is Our Business

The pages of Marshall McLuhan's Culture is Our Business resemble a slide show, coupling images borrowed from print and television advertisements with excerpts from McLuhan’s writing in an extended meditation and critical discussion of the state of commercial imagery and media. McLuhan was a central thinker on the subject, and his writings were of primary influence for a younger generation of new media practitioners.

Culture Cover

Culture Cover

Back (left) and front (right) covers of Culture Is Our Business, Marshall McLuhan (McGraw-Hill, 1970).


Radical Software

Stewart Brand described Radical Software as an inspiration, a publication that resembled the kind of networked community of innovators he had envisioned when developing the Whole Earth Catalog. Published in New York by the media collective Raindance Corporation, the periodical proposes various strategies for alternative television and other interventions in mass media. Articles emphasize a mobile tool kit—including a newly available portable battery-powered video recorder—and shared access to media tools. Other organizations describe their activities and announce events in the Feedback section of each issue.

Radical Software, no. 4 (1971)


Radical Software ad

Advertisement for Radical Software in the Whole Earth Catalog


Guerilla Television

Written by a member of the Raindance Corporation media collective and designed by Ant Farm, Guerilla Television elaborated on the group’s media activism and devoted chapters to the development of support systems and tool-access programs for the production of alternative television.

Photo from Guerilla Television, Michael Shamberg (Holt, Reinhart and Winston, 1971).


Guerilla Television

Interior spread of Guerilla Television, Michael Shamberg (Holt, Reinhart and Winston, 1971).


Spaghetti City Illustration

Produced by the upstate–New York collective Videofreex, The Spaghetti City Video Manual provides details about video production as well as maintenance and repair tips for video equipment. Exceptional drawings of a cartoon camera in various predicaments accompany the instructions.

Illustration from The Spaghetti City Video Manual, Videofreex (Praeger, 1973).


Spaghetti City

Videofreex. The Spaghetti City Video Manual (Praeger, 1973).


WHOLE EARTH BIBLIOGRAPHY

After a two-year hiatus, Stewart Brand reassembled a publishing team in 1973 and updated the contents of The Last Whole Earth Catalog, of 1971. The catalog had received the National Book Award in 1972, and significant demand still existed for Whole Earth material. The updated last issues of the catalog are its most recognized iterations, and over two million copies were sold. The publication’s history is best summarized by Brand’s essay in the back pages of these issues, in which he gives a full account of the events leading up to the initial publication, the decisions that formed further evolutions of the catalogue format, and the people who worked in producing and distributing the books.

Whole Earth Catalog March 1971

The Last Supplement to the Whole Earth Catalog, 1971


Note to Librarians
Wittenborn

Whole Earth Catalog Publications

Whole Earth Catalog. Menlo Park, Calif: Portola Institute, 1968-1970. (MoMA lacks 1st issue.)

Difficult but Possible: Supplement to the Whole Earth Catalog. Menlo Park, CA: Portola Institute, July 1969, September 1969.

$1 Whole Earth Catalog. Menlo Park, CA: Portola Institute, January 1970, March 1970, September 1970, January 1971.

The Last Whole Earth Catalog: Access to Tools.  Portola Institute; distributed by Random House, New York, 1971).

Kesey, Ken, and Paul Krassner. The Last Supplement to the Whole Earth Catalog. Menlo Park, CA: Whole Earth Catalog, 1971.

The Updated Last Whole Earth Catalog: Access to Tools. San Francisco: Point, 1974.

Whole Earth Epilog: Access to Tools. San Francisco: Point, 1974.


Whole Earth Catalog Listing

Whole Earth Catalog Listing

Listed Publications

Alexander, Christopher. Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964.

Archigram. London, 1960-.

Architectural Design. London: Standard Catalogue Co, -1969.
Architectural Design: A.d. London: Standard Catalogue Co, 1971-.

Baer, Steve. Dome Cookbook. Corrales, N.M: Lama Foundation, 1967.

Baer, Steve. Zome Primer: Elements of Zonohedra Geometry. Albuquerque: N. M, 1970.

Big Rock Candy Mountain. Menlo Park, Calif: Portola Institute, 1970.

Borrego, John. Space Grid Structures: Skeletal Frameworks and Stressed-Skin Systems. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1968.

Cage, John. A Year from Monday: New Lectures and Writings. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1967.

Canadian Whole Earth Almanac. Toronto: Canadian Whole Earth Research Foundation, 1970.

Cortright, Edgar M. Exploring Space with a Camera. Washington, D.C: Scientific and Technical Information Division, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1968.

Critchlow, Keith. Order in Space: A Design Source Book. London: Thames & Hudson, 1969.

Earth Photographs from Gemini Iii, Iv and V. Washington, D. C: Scientific and Technical Information Division, NASA, 1967.

Friends. London: TF Much Co, 1969.

Fuller, R B, Jerome Agel, and Quentin Fiore. I Seem to Be a Verb. New York: Bantam Books, 1970.

Fuller, R B. Nine Chains to the Moon. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Pr, 1963.

Fuller, R B. Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1969. Print.

Fuller, R B. Untitled Epic Poem on the History of Industrialization. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1962. Print.

Fuller, R B, and John McHale. World Design Science Decade, 1965-1975: Five Two Year Phases of a World Retooling Design Proposed to the International Union of Architects for Adoption by World Architectural Schools. Carbondale, 1963.

IL : Information of the Institute for Lightweight Structures and Conceptual Design. Stuttgart: Institut für Leichte Flächentragwerke, 1969-.  

Inflatocookbook. Sausalito, CA.: Ant Farm, 1971

Isaacs, Ken. Culture Breakers, Alternatives, and Other Numbers. New York: MSS Educational Pub. Co, 1970.

Jolley, John L. Data Study. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.

The Journal of the New Alchemists. Woods Hole, Mass: New Alchemy Institute, 1973.

Kahn, Lloyd. Domebook 2. Bolinas, Calif: Pacific Domes ; distributed by Random House, 1970.

Kepes, Gyorgy. Structure in Art and in Science. New York: G. Braziller, 1965

Kepes, Gyorgy. The Nature and Art of Motion. New York: G. Braziller, 1965.

Kepes, Gyorgy. Module, Proportion, Symmetry, Rhythm. New York: G. Braziller, 1966.

Luzadder, Warren J. Basic Graphics for Design, Analysis, Communications, and the Computer. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall, 1968.

Marks, Robert W. The Dymaxion World of Buckminster Fuller. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1960.

McLuhan, Marshall. Culture Is Our Business. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970.

The Modern Utopian : Communes, USA. v. 5. Issues 1.2.3. (Alternatives Foundation, 1971)

The Modern Utopian : Communes, Japan. (Alternatives Foundation, 1971)

The Mother Earth News. Arden, NC, etc: Sussex Publishers, 1970-.

Otto, Frei. Tensile Structures. Cambridge, Mass: M.I.T. Press, 1967.

Popko, Edward. Geodesics. Detroit: School of Architecture, University of Detroit, 1968.

Propst, Robert. The Office: A Facility Based on Change / by Robert Propst. Ann Arbor, Mich: Herman Miller Research Corp, 1968.

Radical Software. New York, N.Y: Raindance Corp, 1970.

Rags. (Rosy Cheeks Publishers, June 1970-December 1970).

Reichardt, Jasia. Cybernetic Serendipity: The Computer and the Arts. London: Studio International, 1968. Print.

Roland, Conrad. Frei Otto: Tension Structures. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1970. Print.

Rudofsky, Bernard. Architecture Without Architects: An Introduction to Nonpedigreed Architecture. New York: Museum of Modern Art; distributed by Doubleday, Garden City, N.Y, 1964.

Safdie, Moshe. Beyond Habitat. Cambridge, Mass: M.I.T. Press, 1970.

Shamberg, Michael. Guerilla Television. N.Y: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971.

Thompson, D'Arcy W. On Growth and Form. Cambridge, 1942.

Videofreex. The Spaghetti City Video Manual: A Guide to Use, Repair, and Maintenance. New York: Praeger, 1973.

Von, Foerster H, and James W. Beauchamp. Music by Computers. New York: J. Wiley, 1969.

We Built Our Own Computers. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P, 1966.

Wiener, Norbert. Cybernetics; Or, Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. New York: M.I.T. Press, 1961.

Wiener, Norbert. The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1954.

Wood, Donald G. Space Enclosure Systems: The Variables of Packing Cell Design. Columbus: Engineering Experiment Station, Ohio State University, 1968.

Youngblood, Gene. Expanded Cinema. New York: Dutton, 1970


Further Reading

Bloom, Brett and Bonnie Fortune. Let's Re-make: Formerly Known as the "Library for Radiant Optimism for Let's Re-make the World." (The archive site for Let's Re-make).

Colomina, Beatriz. Clip, Stamp, Fold: The Radical Architecture of Little Magazines, 196x to 197x. Barcelona: Actar, 2010.

Gordon, Alastair. Spaced Out: Radical Environments of the Psychedelic Sixties. New York: Rizzoli, 2008

Horvitz, Robert. "Whole Earth Culture." Written for the conference "Wilderness as a Phenomenon of Integral Culture," May 4-5, 2002.

Kirk, Andrew G. Counterculture Green: The Whole Earth Catalog and American Environmentalism. Lawrence, Kan: University Press of Kansas, 2007.

Reinfurt, David. "A Condensed Biography of Stewart Brand as Model Global Citizen including the Whole Earth Catalog, Computer Games and Extended Scenarios." From Dot Dot Dot 8, 2004.

Sadler, Simon. "An Architecture of the Whole." Journal of Architectural Education vol. 61, no. 4 (2008): 108-129.

Scott, Felicity D. E. Architecture or Techno-Utopia: Politics After Modernism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007.

Turner, Fred. From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

All material in this exhibition is held by The Museum of Modern Art Library. Contact library@moma.org for an appointment.


Acknowledgements

Thanks to Stewart Brand, Rene Smith, Milan Hughston, Jennifer Tobias and the MoMA library staff for their support. Also special thanks to Rebecca Roberts, Stephanie Pau, Sarah Bodinson, Sara Dayton, and Chiara Bernasconi for their assistance.

This project is dedicated to Ezra Morrell.