Donald Judd. Untitled (Stack). 1967

Donald Judd

Untitled (Stack)


Not on view
Lacquer on galvanized iron
Twelve units, each 9 x 40 x 31" (22.8 x 101.6 x 78.7 cm), installed vertically with 9" (22.8 cm) intervals
Helen Acheson Bequest (by exchange) and gift of Joseph Helman
Object number
Painting and Sculpture
This work is not on view.
Donald Judd has 65 works online.
There are 1,416 sculptures online.

Untitled (Stack) is made of up to twelve rectangular metal boxes—a simple geometric form Judd favored because he felt it carried no symbolic meaning. Depending on the height of the ceiling where the work is displayed, the number of units may be reduced in order to maintain even spacing between them. Judd made this work based on a predetermined system, circumventing the spontaneous decisions artists often face during the art-making process. Like many of his Minimalist contemporaries, Judd used industrial materials—in this case, galvanized iron and green lacquer paint typically used in auto body shops—and had the work fabricated in a metal workshop according to his specifications.

Gallery label from 2013

Additional text

Sculpture must always face gravity, and the stack—one thing on top of another— is one of its basic ways of coping. The principle traditionally enforces a certain hierarchy, an upper object being not only usually different from a lower one but conceptually nobler, as when a statue stands on a pedestal. Yet in Judd's stack of galvanized–iron boxes, all of the units are identical; they are set on the wall and separated, so that none is subordinated to another's weight (and also so that the space around them plays a role in the work equivalent to theirs); and their regular climb—each of the twelve boxes is nine inches high, and they rest nine inches apart—suggests an infinitely extensible series, denying the possibility of a crowning summit. Judd's form of Minimalism reflected his belief in the equality of all things. "In terms of existing," he wrote," everything is equal."

The field of Minimalist objects, however, is not an undifferentiated one—Judd also believed that sculpture needed what he called "polarization," some fundamental tension. Here, for example, the uniform boxes, their tops and undersides bare metal, suggest the industrial production line. Meanwhile their fronts and sides have a coat of green lacquer, which, although it is auto paint, is a little unevenly applied, and has a luscious glamour.

Publication excerpt from The Museum of Modern Art, MoMA Highlights, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, revised 2004, originally published 1999, p. 289

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