Vasily Kandinsky. Panel for Edwin R. Campbell No. 4. 1914

Vasily Kandinsky

Panel for Edwin R. Campbell No. 4


Oil on canvas
64 1/4 x 48 1/4" (163 x 122.5 cm)
Nelson A. Rockefeller Fund (by exchange)
Object number
© 2016 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris
Painting and Sculpture
This work is not on view.
Vasily Kandinsky has 149 works online.
There are 2,309 paintings online.

This series of four canvases was commissioned by Edwin R. Campbell, founder of Chevrolet Motor Company, for the entrance foyer of his Park Avenue apartment. In 1913, Kandinsky coined the expression "nonobjective painting" to refer to painting that depicted no recognizable objects. Although preliminary studies for one of these paintings suggest that Kandinsky had a landscape in mind when he conceived it, he ultimately envisioned these works as free of descriptive devices. Kandinsky stressed the impact of color and its association with music, explaining that "color is a means of exerting direct influence upon the soul. Color is a keyboard. The eye is the hammer. The soul is the piano, with its many strings."

Gallery label from 2006

This painting is one of a lush and vibrant suite of four canvases produced at a time when artists in several countries were beginning to explore what Kandinsky, a pioneer of abstract art, called "nonobjective" painting—painting that showed no immediately recognizable objects. Instead, Kandinsky wanted each of his works to be "a graphic representation of a mood." Studies for one of these paintings suggest that he had a landscape in mind when he conceived it, and we might still see in all four works a field, a mountain, or a cloud; but they are much transformed. Similarly, if these works do indeed describe the four seasons, as one scholar has guessed, then their colors and abstract shapes respond to some quality sensed in the year's phases, rather than to any specific scene.

Edwin R. Campbell, who commissioned the series, was an automobile executive, who had the works made to fit the walls in the entrance hall of the New York apartment he shared with his wife, Margery. Unfortunately, the couple separated in 1921, and the paintings separated too, being divided into pairs, and passing through several different collections; they were permanently reunited at The Museum of Modern Art in 1982.

Publication excerpt from The Museum of Modern Art , MoMA Highlights, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, revised 2004, originally published 1999, p. 73

This work is included in the Provenance Research Project, which investigates the ownership history of works in MoMA's collection.
(same as that of Panel No. 2)
(Willem Beffie, Amsterdam. Left in care of Beffie by Kandinsky with instructions to ship them to New York, 1914 – 1916)
Mr. and Mrs. Edwin R. Campbell, 1914 – 1929. (Commissioned in 1914, together with Painting Number 199, Painting Number 200, and Painting Number 201, as a mural ensemble for their New York apartment at 635 Park Avenue. First exhibited in Stockholm in February 1916, then shipped to New York in summer 1916, and installed in Campbell’s foyer in fall 1916, until 1921 when Edwin Campbell (1874-1929) divorced and moved.)
[Whereabouts unknown. 1929 – 1940]
Murray Hoffman, Palm Beach, Florida. 1940
James St. L. O’Toole, New York (dealer). Acquired panels 2 and 4 from Hoffman, 1940 – 1941
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. Purchased from O’Toole, 1941 – 1983
The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Nelson A. Rockefeller Fund (by exchange), 1983

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