Max Beckmann. The Martyrdom (plate 4) [Das Martyrium (Blatt 4)] from Hell (Die Hölle). (1919)

Max Beckmann

The Martyrdom (plate 4) [Das Martyrium (Blatt 4)] from Hell (Die Hölle)


Not on view
One from a portfolio of eleven lithographs (including front cover)
composition (irreg.): 21 9/16 x 29 5/8" (54.7 x 75.2 cm); sheet: 24 5/16 x 34 5/16" (61.7 x 87.2 cm)
J. B. Neumann, Berlin
C. Naumann's Druckerei, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
75; plus 4 known trial proofs
Larry Aldrich Fund
Object number
© 2015 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn
Hell (Die Hölle)
Drawings and Prints
This work is not on view.
This work is part of a portfolio with 10 other works online.
Max Beckmann has 219 works online.
There are 17,184 prints online.

In the portfolio Hölle (Hell), Max Beckmann journeys, Virgil-like, through Berlin. These ten oversize lithographs present an unflinching look at social disintegration and civil violence after the catastrophe of World War I. Beckmann visited Berlin in March 1919, and depicts himself amid the misery in Hölle; his self-portrait appears in five prints and on the front cover, which, in a handwritten note, promises the viewer an entertaining spectacle.

Unlike many of his compatriots, including the disfigured veteran he encounters in the first print, Der Nachhauseweg (The way home), Beckmann came back whole. He presents a fragmented city, with bodies jutting out of the pictures' frames and figures contorted in impossible spaces. In Die Strasse (The street), a thoroughfare is bustling with daytime activity, yet no one notices the man being carried off, arms flailing, by another man. In Das Martyrium (The martyrdom), under the cover of night, communist leader Rosa Luxemburg is about to be murdered. Speeches, songs, and even last stands are futile. No place is safe: Beckmann transforms an attic into a torture chamber in Die Nacht (Night), while quiet desperation pervades his own family's home in Der Hunger (Hunger). In the final print, Die Familie (The family), Beckmann's young son, Peter, mistakes a grenade for a toy. Beckmann brings the hell of war home in these prints. His publisher, J. B. Neumann, did not sell any when he exhibited them in 1919.

Publication excerpt from Heather Hess, German Expressionist Digital Archive Project, German Expressionism: Works from the Collection. 2011.

Provenance Research Project
This work is included in the Provenance Research Project, which investigates the ownership history of works in MoMA's collection.
New Gallery, New York; to The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1954

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