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On view  |  Sculpture Garden, Exterior, Floor 1

Henri Matisse. The Back (III). Issy-les-Moulineaux, by May 13, 1913 - early fall 1916

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Henri Matisse (French, 1869–1954)

The Back (III)

Issy-les-Moulineaux, by May 13, 1913 - early fall 1916
6' 2 1/2" x 44" x 6" (189.2 x 112.4 x 15.2 cm)
Credit Line:
Mrs. Simon Guggenheim Fund
MoMA Number:
© 2015 Succession H. Matisse / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
Audio Program excerpt

Matisse: Radical Invention, 1913 - 1917

, July 18 - October 11, 2010

Director, Glenn Lowry: This is Back (III), the third version in the series. To make it, Matisse used Back (II) as a starting point and radically transformed it. He simplified and separated the forms, adding a block-like head, a long ponytail, and one puzzling element: the vertical line on the right.

Conservator, Lynda Zycherman: Back (III) is the only one of the reliefs with a vertical line in the background. Might this be a suggestion of a landscape? A tree? At one time I thought that perhaps the plaster relief broke as Matisse was carving so deeply into the plaster of Back (II) and that he repaired it and accepted the damage. But after we did laser scanning deep in that line, we could see concentric chisel marks. Matisse carved that line intentionally [...].

The Museum of Modern Art, MoMA Highlights, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, revised 2004, originally published 1999, p. 78

"Fit your parts into one another and build up your figure as a carpenter does a house. Everything must be constructed—built up of parts that make a unit; a tree like a human body, a human body like a cathedral." So Matisse believed the sculptor should proceed, and the credo can be sensed in this work and throughout the group of four relief sculptures to which it belongs, with its progressive stability and simplicity. Matisse did not conceive The Backs as a series, but occasionally returned to the theme over the years. Even so, these reliefs—his largest sculptures—present a coherent progress, from a relatively detailed naturalism toward a near-abstract monumentality.

This work is the third in the series, and it is more vertical and less sinuous than its precursors. The first work in the series (1909) has a dynamic tension, and an arabesque line flows through it; in the second (1913), the body is more erect, less fluid. The left leg has become a thick pillar; making the figure more solid. The third work leads to the fourth (1931), where Matisse suppresses physical detail, making the contours more fluid, the surface more homogeneous. But if he surrenders expressiveness in the sculpture's parts, he regains it in the symmetrical harmony of the work as a whole.

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