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Chris Ofili. Prince amongst Thieves. 1999

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Chris Ofili (British, born 1968)

Prince amongst Thieves

Oil, paper collage, glitter, polyester resin, map pins, and elephant dung on linen
8 x 6' (243.8 x 182.9 cm)
Credit Line:
Mimi and Peter Haas Fund
MoMA Number:
© 2015 Chris Ofili

The Museum of Modern Art, MoMA Highlights, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, revised 2004, originally published 1999, p. 370

Ofili's intensely worked, vibrant paintings combine a wide range of referents, from African burlesque to Western popular culture. Using a cut-and-mix technique and repetitive patterning, the works evoke the anarchic rhythm of hip–hop lyrics and performance. Prince amongst Thieves features the caricatured yet regal profile of a bemused man of African descent, set against a densely ornate background dotted with countless minute collages of the heads of illustrious black figures. The work's shimmering, psychedelic surface of sprayed pigment, synthetic polymer paint, glitter, elephant dung, and splashes of translucent resin produces a ritualistic effect that parodies stereotypes of black culture while celebrating difference. The lacquered clumps of elephant dung on which the canvas rests have become a signature for Ofili, and they confer on the painting a sculptural and perhaps even totemic presence, invoking African tribal art, with which Ofili (who is of Nigerian descent) became familiar during a visit to Zimbabwe, in 1992.

The artist uses elephant droppings for its traditional associations but procures it from the London Zoo, thereby probing his cultural heritage and urban experience in ways that confound identity typecasting. Ofili's mix of hybrid sources culled from popular magazines, music, folk art, and the tough streets around his Kings Cross studio, in London, epitomizes a new form of counterculture that subtly reworks Western perceptions of blackness.

The Museum of Modern Art, MoMA Highlights since 1980, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, p. 184

In a nocturnal scene sparkling with phosphorescent color, the bust of a man looms like a dark, expanding, hallucinogenic vision. The outsized, extravagant figure, overshadowing a gang of tiny faces cut from magazines, exists in a zone of contradiction. Rouged, glittering, bejeweled, and flaunting a pharaoh beard and afro hairstyle, this inner-city aristocrat, prince, tribal elder, or hip-hop icon is both noble and base, persuasive and blatantly stereotypical. Elephant dung, the artist's signature material (procured from the London Zoo) forms ornaments of the prince’s costume, and also the two round pedestals on which the painting rests.

Ofili's techniques and his aesthetic references are layered and culturally varied. In this painting he combines collage, paint, organic matter, and glitter, and pushes the work toward sculpture by resting it on pedestals close to the ground and leaning it against the wall. The myriad dots on the surface of the canvas hark back to the cave paintings the artist observed on a trip to Zimbabwe. Op and Psychedelic art and the Pattern and Decoration movement of the 1970s inform the work, as well as ancient African art, modern Nigerian art (particularly the Oshogbo school, with its fantastic creatures and mythologies), and, above all, contemporary hip-hop culture.

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