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On view  |  Painting and Sculpture II, Gallery 20, Floor 4

Frank Stella. The Marriage of Reason and Squalor, II. 1959

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Frank Stella (American, born 1936)

The Marriage of Reason and Squalor, II

Enamel on canvas
7' 6 3/4" x 11' 3/4" (230.5 x 337.2 cm)
Credit Line:
Larry Aldrich Foundation Fund
MoMA Number:
© 2015 Frank Stella / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

The Museum of Modern Art, MoMA Highlights, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, revised 2004, originally published 1999, p. 233

In each half of The Marriage of Reason and Squalor, II, stripes outline stripes in an inverted U-shape, a regular, self-generating pattern. Filling the canvas according to a methodical program, Stella suggests an idea of the artist as laborer or worker. (He also uses commercial paint—black enamel—and a house-painter's brush.) The systematic quality of Stella's Black Paintings decisively departed from the ideas of inspired action associated with Abstract Expressionism, the art of the preceding generation, and anticipated the machine-made Minimal art of the 1960s. But many of them, like this one, are subtly personal: Stella worked freehand, and irregularities in the lines of the stripes reveal the slight waverings of his brush. His enamel, too, suggests a bow to the Abstract Expressionist Jackson Pollock, who had also used that paint.

Stella's use of stripes was motivated by the work of Jasper Johns, particularly Johns's paintings of flags. "The thing that struck me most," Stella has said, "was the way he stuck to the motif . . . the idea of stripes—rhythm and interval—the idea of repetition." But Stella went farther than Johns in "sticking to the motif," removing the flag and leaving only the stripes. "My painting," he said, "is based on the fact that only what can be seen there is there. . . . What you see is what you see."

Audio Program excerpt

MoMA Audio: Collection

, 2013

Director, Glenn Lowry: In the late 1950s, Frank Stella began to make abstract pictures comprising parallel lines and patterns using a housepainters brush.

Curator, Leah Dickerman: The line in Frank Stella's paintings is repeated with hand-rendered stripes of house paint. They're all exactly the same size, repeating one after another with a small gap of bare canvas in between. Once the pattern is established they could be generated systematically, so that the structure for the work of art was deductive.

If you think about traditional notions of composition, there are suggestions of depth. Certain colors seem to protrude or recede; certain gestures would seem to give three-dimensional effects. And one thing that Stella's paintings did was deny depth.

Stella talked about wanting to create a picture that would have a strong and immediate visual impact “an imprint,” he called it—so that it was completely and immediately available to the eye. And you would see it all at once and not in component parts.

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