The Museum of Modern Art, MoMA Highlights, MoMA Highlights, p. 39
The emergence of the Art Nouveau style toward the end of the nineteenth century resulted from a search for a new aesthetic that was not based on historical or classical models. The sinuous, organic lines of Guimard's design and the stylized, giant stalks drooping under the weight of what seem to be swollen tropical flowers, but are actually amber glass lamps, make this a quintessentially Art Nouveau piece. His designs for this famous entrance arch and two others were intended to visually enhance the experience of underground travel on the new subway system for Paris.
Paris was not the first city to implement an underground system (London already had one), but the approaching Paris Exposition of 1900 accelerated the need for an efficient and attractive means of mass transportation. Although Guimard never formally entered the competition for the design of the system's entrance gates that had been launched by the Compagnie du Métropolitain in 1898, he won the commission with his avant-garde schemes, all using standardized cast-iron components to facilitate manufacture, transport, and assembly.
While Parisians were at first hesitant in their response to Guimard's use of an unfamiliar vocabulary, his Métro gates, installed throughout the city, effectively brought the Art Nouveau style, formerly associated with the luxury market, into the realm of popular culture.
MoMA Audio Collection, 2008
Director, Glenn Lowry: The Paris Exposition of 1900 prompted the city to build an efficient and attractive means of mass transportation. Hector Guimard's sinuous, quintessentially Art Nouveau design won the competition.
Sculptutre Conservator, Lynda Zycherman: This was the second subway created in the world. The first was the one in London. It was Guimard's intention to advertise the subway publicly. He placed his Metro signs right in the middle of the plaza or on the sidewalk where it was visible by anyone who would come to see it, as opposed to the London subway where the entrances are more subtly hidden into a building and not in a public plaza.
His other innovation was to use modular systems to be able to create over a hundred gates in Paris. They are made of cast iron but they are painted to look as if they're bronze. Thats why they're green. The word Metropolitain is lava stone that has been ground up and re-fired to make a very impervious ceramic.
It was made to be outside. But it is over a hundred years old and it was pretty seriously rusted because the paint had failed over and over, from the time it was erected in Paris, until the French took it down in 1950-something.